Anatomical and Clinical Characteristics of Scalp Acupuncture Systems: a Scoping Review and SynthesisSvetlana Wise1,*, Ava Lorenc2J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(5): 159-175Abstract
Scalp acupuncture is a therapeutic procedure that involves inserting needles into the scalp to treat various medical conditions, including pain and neurological and psychological disorders. The inter-system variability of scalp acupuncture limits secondary analysis and evidence synthesis, delaying its inclusion into evidence-based healthcare policies and establishment as a treatment intervention recognized by Western medicine. This scoping review aimed to identify the range of scalp acupuncture systems, systematically collect and summarize information on their general, anatomical, and clinical characteristics, and build a framework for understanding scalp acupuncture systems. This review included all English-language publications on scalp acupuncture applied to treat any health condition in humans. Extensive searches were conducted across bibliographic databases, journals, trial registries, and supplementary sources. The detailed general, anatomical, and clinical application characteristics of 19 scalp acupuncture systems were extracted. Data were collected and analyzed using charting and image manipulation software. Framework synthesis was performed using the Standard International Acupuncture Nomenclature Scalp Acupuncture as an a priori framework. The review revealed that the heterogeneity related to scalp acupuncture methods can be attributed to the high variability among the theoretical bases of different systems, intersystem mismatch in anatomical locations of treatment points and areas on the scalp, and inconsistencies in the methods used for locating them. These discrepancies in anatomical and clinical features have limited the synthesis and development of a framework for scalp acupuncture. Discussion and agreement on the anatomical locations of scalp stimulation areas, identification of methods for precise positioning of acupuncture areas on the scalp, and further exploration of theoretical bases will aid in the standardization of scalp acupuncture and improve the quality of research in this area.
Research Article2023-10-31Suhaib Ibrahim Alkhamaiseh1,2,*, Amjad H. Bazzari3, Abdel Hadi Al jafari1, Firas H. Bazzari1J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(5): 176-182Abstract
Background: Wet cupping (Hijama), a form of alternative medicine, is widely practiced in Middle Eastern countries, especially Saudi Arabia. Although considerable effort has been put into increasing public awareness about the safe and proper practice of wet cupping, studies on the attitudes, knowledge, and awareness levels of the Saudi Arabian public are lacking.Objectives: This study evaluated public attitudes toward the effectiveness, safety, and expected standards of practicing wet cupping. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire and involved 909 complete responses. The respondents were Saudi adults with a mean age of 30.43 ± 11.4 years (males: 42.1%, females: 57.9%). Results: The study revealed that most participants believed that although wet cupping is a beneficial (84.6%), well-known form of alternative medicine (82.4%) without harmful side effects (63.9%), it is not suitable for treating all diseases (72.3%) or everyone (66.8%). Most participants prefer wet cupping to be done at specialized centers (84.6%) by practitioners with confirmed qualifications (88.6%) using valid and sterile instruments (88.9%). The main demographic factor influencing participant responses was age, which was associated with more positive perceptions. Female, single, college-educated, and middle-aged respondents had more cautious attitudes. Conclusion: Our results indicate that Saudis support the use of wet cupping as an alternative medicine for select diseases and that individuals have adequate awareness of the practice’s safety standards to avoid potential risks.
Case Report2023-10-31Marco Di Carlo*, Antonio D’Addario, Fausto SalaffiJ Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(5): 183-187Abstract
Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is characterized by a paradoxical increase in pain sensitivity following opioid exposure. Although animal models indicate that electroacupuncture (EA) is effective against pain sensitization, there are no reports of its clinical application in OIH treatment. This case report involves an adult patient with osteomalacia complicated by multiple vertebral fragility fractures. The patient developed OIH following the use of oxycodone to treat severe disabling lower back pain that was refractory to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. After hospitalization and treatment with low EA-frequency (2-10 Hz) sessions, the patient exhibited significant pain reduction and functional recovery after the first session, which was accompanied by steady progressive improvement as the treatment continued. This case report illustrates the clinical efficacy of EA in OIH treatment and indicates that EA, which has multiple modes of action on the neurobiology of chronic pain, has potential applications in the management of complex and difficult-to-manage conditions, such as OIH.
Scalp Acupuncture on the Immediate and Prolonged Motor Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury: a Case ReportGeetha B. Shetty1, Nanjeshgowda H L2,*J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(5): 188-192Abstract
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the main causes of lifelong motor impairment and is associated with important secondary complications. Thus, multifaceted treatments are needed for early functional recovery. Currently, in cases of SCI, surgery, stem cell treatment, medication, and physical therapy are used to repair and restore neuronal activity. Additionally, encouraging results have been reported on the use of acupuncture to modulate neuronal plasticity. Here, we present an SCI case involving a burst fracture at the L3 level, which was treated for 21 days using scalp acupuncture with residential physical therapy. Activation of the motor area was observed after the 1st day of treatment, with the patient completely regaining power and range of motion in the knees, Additionally, over 21 days, the patient exhibited markedly improved motor recovery and functional outcomes, which had not been observed over the previous six months. This report highlights the importance of complementing scalp acupuncture with intensive physical therapy for better motor recovery.
Clinical Study Protocol2023-10-31
Dry Needling for Arthrogenic Muscle Inhibition of Quadriceps Femoris in Patients after Reconstruction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament: a Protocol for a Randomized Controlled TrialMilad Zarrin1,2, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari1,3,*, Soofia Naghdi1, Scott Hasson4, Bijan Forogh5, Mehdi Rezaee6J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(5): 193-202Abstract
Background: Dry needling (DN) is recommended as a therapeutic modality for various neuromusculoskeletal disorders. No study has been performed on the impact of DN on arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). This study protocol is aimed to investigate the impacts of DN on AMI of quadriceps femoris, corticomotor, and spinal reflex excitability in patients with ACLR. Methods: A double-blind, between-subject, randomized, controlled trial will be conducted to measure changes in AMI after DN. Twenty-four subjects with ACLR will be recruited to receive a DN or a sham DN, providing that they met the inclusion criteria. Three sessions of DN on the quadriceps femoris will be applied during a one-week period. The primary outcome measures are the active motor threshold, motor evoked potential, and Hmax – Mmax ratio. The secondary outcomes are the International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form questionnaire score and maximum quadriceps isometric torque. Data will be collected at baseline, immediately after the first session, after the third session, and at the one-month follow-up visit. Discussion: The results of this study will provide preliminary evidence regarding the effects of DN on AMI of quadriceps femoris in patients with ACLR.