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  • Abstract : This narrative review examines the psychosocial factors that might predict clinical outcomes in acupuncture for pain. Given existing evidence concerning the clinical effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in painful conditions, it is important to consider how clinicians might further improve their effectiveness. The relevant theoretical frameworks focus primarily on the patient, suggesting that their background characteristics and their beliefs about pain and acupuncture should be considered as potential predictors of outcome. The self-regulation model within health psychology helps us understand how people manage their health and integrate interventions like acupuncture into the management of their illness. This model also implies that the therapeutic relationship, in particular patients' perceptions of that relationship, is likely to be related to outcome. The empirical literature in this area is sparse. However, the findings to date do suggest that a number of psychosocial factors, in particular patients' beliefs about acupuncture, are significant predictors of treatment outcomes from acupuncture for pain. Factors related to the therapeutic relationship are also likely to be important in facilitating good clinical outcomes. We discuss the limitations of the existing studies and make recommendations for future research in this area. If we can better understand the psychosocial factors involved in acupuncture, then we should be able to enhance acupuncture treatments and improve outcomes for patients. These observations will, therefore, have potential to allow us to develop techniques that may improve clinical outcomes in the treatment of pain.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2008-09-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of acupuncture on the perception of pain and coping strategies, thus focusing on the psychological aspects of pain. The study was conducted in two complementary and alternative medicine clinics of public hospitals. Forty-one patients scheduled for routine acupuncture therapy because of chronic musculoskeletal pain were recruited for the study to receive eight acupuncture treatments. Twenty-four patients completed the treatment schedule and filled two self-reported questionnaires before and after therapy: (1) Illness Perception Questionnaire—Revised (IPQ-R); and (2) Coping Strategies questionnaire (Brief COPE). A significant improvement was found in the following measures related to pain perception: timeline (chronic versus acute), treatment control, and personal control. Additionally, significant improvement was displayed in three measures related to coping strategies: positive reframing, religion, and venting. The results indicate that acupuncture therapy might be efficient in changing patient's pain perception from chronic to acute and in enhancing their sense of personal and treatment control over their pain. In addition, acupuncture therapy partially improved coping strategies. The present study provides further validation for acupuncture therapy in pain and highlights its possible role in affecting the psychological aspects of pain.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2008-09-01
    JAMS

    Acupuncture Treatment in Geriatric Rehabilitation: A Retrospective Study

    Adi Barada, Yair Maimona, Ehud Millera, Shifra Merdlerb, David Goldrayb, Yaffa Lermanb, Shahar Lev-aria*

    Abstract : The main goal of geriatric rehabilitation reconditioning following an acute illness is rapid restoration of normal activity. Key elements are pain control, restoration of bowel function, sleep, appetite and general well being, alongside physical activity. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the effect of acupuncture as an adjunct to medical and physical rehabilitation in geriatric patients. The setting was a university-affiliated large city general hospital. The participants comprised 27 consenting consecutive patients in a subacute geriatric rehabilitation department. The interventions consisted of biweekly acupuncture treatment in conjunction with medical and physical therapy. The outcome measures of pain, appetite, quality of sleep, bowel function and general well being were assessed using a 10-point Likert scale at the onset and close of treatment. The results showed that a significant post-treatment improvement was seen in pain (p=0.005), appetite (p=0.0034), bowel function (p=0.029) and general well being (p=0.0012) scores in patients' treatment when compared with pretreatment baseline scores. The “quality of sleep” score showed a trend towards improvement (p=0.073). In conclusion, acupuncture may be beneficial as an adjunctive treatment in geriatric postacute illness rehabilitation. Randomized controlled trials are needed to further assess the role of acupuncture as part of treatment management for restoring normal physical activity in geriatric patients.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2008-09-01

    Abstract : BackgroundSmoking is reported to increase arterial stiffness. Indices obtained from the second derivative of digital volume pulse (SDDVP) waveform have been proposed to characterize vascular aging and arterial rigidity. PC6 (Neiguan) is a traditional acupoint in each forearm that has been shown to modify cardiovascular functioning.ObjectiveTo investigate the acute effects of manual needling with PC6 on SDDVP indices in healthy chronic smoker and nonsmoker subjects.Subjects and MethodsAging index (AI) was defined as (b – c – d – e)/a, B:A was calculated as the ratio of the absolute value for the height of the b wave (B) to that of the a wave (A), and D:A was calculated as the ratio of the absolute value for the height of the d wave (D) to that of the a wave (A). These indices derived of the wave components of SDDVP of healthy nonsmokers (n=40; 28.3±3.0 years old) vs. chronic smokers (n=30; 29.9±2.9 years old) were compared. The digital volume pulse (DVP) was obtained by measuring infrared light transmission through the finger. Of each subject, a DVP registration 20 minutes long was obtained. PC6 was stimulated unilaterally by manual needling for 5 minutes (1–6 minutes). SDDVP indices were compared in each subject in pre- vs. post-acupuncture periods (30 seconds vs. 18 minutes, respectively).ResultsAt baseline, we found significant difference in B:A between nonsmokers and smokers. Comparing pre- vs. post-acupuncture periods, B:A and D:A did not show significant differences among nonsmokers, but B:A improved significantly in smokers and AI improved significantly in both nonsmokers and smokers.ConclusionThese findings suggest that manual needling with PC6 could revert some of the deleterious effects on vascular functioning produced by chronic cigarette smoking.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2009-03-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : For at least 2,500 years, acupuncture has been an integral part of traditional Chinese medicine. However, recently as more people in western countries are diagnosed with chronic disease poorly treated with modern medical therapies, many are turning to acupuncture and other forms of alternative medical treatments. Based on the theory of harmonious flowing qi being the basis of good health, acupuncture focuses on restoring qi by manipulation of the complementary and opposing elements of yin and yang. However, in the modern medical community we struggle to with the concept of qi, given a lack of anatomic and histological evidence supporting its existence. However, with the surge in public interest in acupuncture, the scientific community begun heavy investigation of acupuncture's efficacy, as well as the physiologic basis behind it. Thus far, evidence supports the use of acupuncture in post-operative nausea and vomiting, postoperative dental pain, chronic pain conditions such as lower back pain, and possibly also such psychologic conditions as addiction. It is possible that by affecting afferent nerve signaling, acupuncture may influence the release of endogenous opioids to promote pain relief. This effect may be augmented by release of ACTH and cortisol, as well as through down-regulation of signaling through pain fibers. When treating patients who may utilize alternative forms of medicine, it is important that medical practitioners be educated in regards to the basic fundamental beliefs behind acupuncture, as well as the scientific evidence supporting its use and revealing its efficacy. The purpose of this review is to give western trained physicians exposure to history, basic knowledge and its clinical applications of acupuncture to accommodate accelerating interests in acupuncture in modern society.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Acupuncture in Oriental medicine has been widely used as a core therapeutic method due to its minimal side-effects and therapeutic efficacy. However, the electrical response to acupuncture stimulation (ERAS) has not been clearly studied under acupuncture conditions that might affect the efficacy of acupuncture therapy. In this study, the ERAS was objectively investigated by measuring meridian electric potentials (MEPs) when the electrical grounding conditions of the operator and subject were varied, and when the insulation conditions of acupuncture needle were varied. MEPs between Sang-geoheo (ST37) and Ha-geoheo (ST39) of the Stomach Meridian (ST) were measured by stimulating Jok-samni (ST36) with an acupuncture needle. For non-insulated acupuncture stimulation (NIAS), the average MEP peak was 148.6 ± 20.6 when neither the operator nor the subject were electrically grounded, 23.1 ± 8.8 when the subject only was electrically grounded, 348 ± 76.8 when the operator only was electrically grounded, and 19.9 ± 4.7 when both the operator and the subject were electrically grounded. The MEPs presented various magnitudes and patterns depending on the electrical grounding conditions. The MEP pattern was very similar to that of the charge and discharge of a capacitor. For insulated acupuncture stimulation (IAS), the average MEP peak was 20 ± 4 in all electrical grounding conditions, which is not a significant electric response for acupuncture stimulation. In terms of electricity, this study verified that acupuncture therapy might be affected by acupuncture conditions such as (1) the electrical grounding condition of the operator and the subject and (2) the insulation condition of the acupuncture needle.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2009-03-01

    Observation of Coiled Blood Plexus in Rat Skin with Diffusive Light Illumination

    Vyacheslav Ogaya, Flora Minb, KwanHyung Kima, JaiSoon Kima, Kyung Hee Baec*, Sang Chul Hanc, Kwang-Sup Soha*

    Abstract : Blood plexuses are characteristic anatomical features of acupuncture points (APs). We developed an optical technique using diffusive light illumination to increase the brightened area of skin for observation of the blood plexuses in skin. We found that the blood plexuses were coiled blood vessels which came out of the perforations in the fascia of muscle. The coiled vessels could be straightened by stretching the skin. We observed a series of blood plexuses at the putative APs along the left and right kidney meridian lines in the abdominal skin of rats. In addition, the locations of the plexuses on the muscle fascia were just above the putative acupuncture muscle channels along the kidney meridians. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of the skin specimens of the plexuses revealed its neurovascular bundle nature as expected from known anatomical features of the APs.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : A visualizing agent, Trypan blue, was found to be preferentially effective for Bonghan ducts (BHDs) and corpuscles compared to blood vessels or adipose tissues. By using it, we observed a weblike network of BHDs which was in various membrane structures, such as the peritoneum, and omenta. This network of BHDs in the membrane structures was connected to the freely movable BHDs which did not adhere to the surfaces or wrapping membranes of internal organs. In addition, tracing BHDs in adipose tissues became possible because Trypan blue does not stain adipose tissue.

  • Brief Report2009-03-01

    Abstract : A new technique for visualizing Bonghan ducts (BHDs) and Bonghan corpuscles (BHCs) was developed by using a vivi-staining dye, Trypan blue. The dye stains BHDs and BHCs preferentially to adipocytes so that tracking a BHD and a BHC, even inside adipose tissues, is possible. Concerning the functions of the BHD and the BHC in adipose tissues, we propose conjectures: the Bonghan system may be niches for mesenchymal stem cells, which can differentiate into adipocytes, and pathways for macrophages involved in adipogenesis.

  • Research Article2008-12-01

    Abstract : This work further investigates the mechanisms of pharmacopuncture based on clinical data from patients with dorsopathy at the lumbosacral level. For the first time, pharmacopuncture was analyzed from the perspective of “classical” medicine and not using homeopathic medicine preconceptions. This confirmed the benefits of the chondro-protector Alflutop. The reduction of the vaso-reflectory reactions observed in this study indicates an extension of its therapeutic uses at the expense of the pharmacopuncture reflectory mechanisms. In turn, the data obtained point the way to further study into the active mechanism of pharmacopuncture.

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
December, 2022
Vol.15 No.6

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Case Report2021-10-31

    Abstract : Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders linked to various systemic diseases ranging from obesity to cancers. The present line of management is insufficient as reports suggest that there is persistence of symptoms and poor adherence that makes the management of said disease challenging. Acupuncture and other Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapies are proven to alleviate endocrine dysfunctions. However, reports on acupuncture and cupping therapy on hypothyroidism are very scarce. Here, we report 5 cases of hypothyroid patients aged between 38-44 yrs who were treated with acupuncture and fire cupping for a period of three months. At the baseline, the patients presented with either a weak, wiry or vacuum pulse which represents spleen Qi deficiency. Further, they presented with elevated levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), and higher Body Mass Index (BMI). Acupuncture treatment at ST36, LI4, SP6, and BL20 was given bilaterally whilst CV4, LR3, LR4, SP9, ST40, SP10, GV4, KI3, ST12, and SI17 were punctured unilaterally. At the end of the time period of three months, patients progressed to normal levels of TSH, reduction in BMI and had succeeded in tapering their medication doses. Supplementing this, the patients reported marked improvement in other symptoms like fatigue, hair loss, and cold feet post-treatment. The effects were consistent even during the three month follow-up period post-interventions. The results encourage the utilization of acupuncture and fire cupping in the management of hypothyroidism. However, large scale studies are warranted to strengthen this recommendation.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-02-28

    Effect of Remote and Local Acupuncture Points on Periarthritis of Shoulder: A Comparative Study

    Kumaresan Poorna Chandran1,*, Prabu Poorna Chandran2, Naveena Arumugam3, Sendhilkumar Muthappan4

    Abstract : Background: Periarthritis of shoulder is a painful condition of the shoulder, affecting 2-3% of the general population and 20% of diabetic patients. Acupuncture is a widely practiced traditional Chinese medicine. Recent evidence shows that it alleviates shoulder pain with different needling techniques. Objectives: The present study is to compare the efficacy of remote and local points on PAS. Methods: 60 subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, remote acupuncture group (n = 30) and local acupuncture group (n = 30). Both groups were assessed at baseline and at the end of 12 sessions. Shoulder pain and its disability index (SPADI) and (ROM) were measured using goniometer. The intervention was given weekly thrice on alternate days for four weeks with 20 min for each session. Results: The result shows that both remote and local acupuncture points were beneficial in the pain management and rage of motion when compared within the group. The effects of acupuncture at remote acupoints were better than those at local acupoints in SPADI and ROM when compared between two groups. Conclusion: In treatment of periarthritis of shoulder remote acupuncture points may have higher therapeutic value when compared to local points.

    Abstract
  • Case Report2021-02-28

    Abstract : The present case study illustrates the case of a 47-year-old female (Ms X) with primary progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS) who presented with central post-stroke pain (CPSP) over her left shoulder and underwent acupuncture treatment (AT) since she appeared irresponsive to conventional treatment. The aim of this case study is to explore the effectiveness of acupuncture as a complimentary treatment in improving central neurogenic pain in MS patients affected by CPSP. AT lasted six weeks, some modification of the conventional AT points was required to ensure continuity and safety of the treatment plan. In fact, Ms X suffered from gingivitis that led to hypersensitivity of her left upper limb (UL) to acupuncture needling; moreover, she experienced sensation loss in her legs as a result of post-stroke complications. The outcome showed that the subject’s shoulder range of motion (ROM), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and pain improved remarkably, enabling Ms X to resume post-stroke rehabilitation and reduce her analgesic intake.

    Abstract
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  • Research Article2021-12-31

    Effect of Dry Cupping Therapy on Pain and Functional Disability in Persistent Non-Specific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Marianna de Melo Salemi1,*, Vanessa Maria da Silva Alves Gomes1, Laylla Marjorye Rebouças Bezerra1, Thania Maion de Souza Melo1, Geisa Guimarães de Alencar1, Iracema Hermes Pires de Mélo Montenegro2, Alessandra Paula de Melo Calado3, Eduardo José Nepomuceno Montenegro1, Gisela Rocha de Siqueira1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(6): 219-230 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.6.219

    Abstract : Background: Cupping therapy is used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including low back pain.Objectives: The study assessed the effects of dry cupping on pain and functional disability from persistent nonspecific low back pain. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial, where participants were allocated to a cupping therapy (n = 19) or sham (n = 18) group, for five 10-minute sessions of cupping therapy, twice a week, to stimulate the acupoints related to low back pain (GV4, BL23, BL24, BL25, and BL30, BL40 and BL58) and emotional aspects (HT3 and ST36). All participants were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and follow up (a finalization period of four weeks) using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Groups were compared using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and the effect size was calculated using Cohen̓s d. Results: The cupping therapy group presented a lower mean VAS when compared to the sham, at post-treatment (mean difference: –2.36; standard error [SE]: 0.58; p < 0.001; “large” effect size: –0.94) and follow up (mean difference: –1.71; SE: 0.81; p < 0.042; ‘large’ effect size: –0.83). The cupping therapy group presented a lower mean ODI when compared to the sham post-treatment (mean difference: –4.68; SE: 1.85; p: 0.017; ‘large’ effect size: –0.87), although in follow-up, there was no difference between the groups (mean difference: 4.16; SE: 2.97; p: 0.17; “medium” effect size: –0.70). Conclusion: Dry cupping was more effective in improving pain and functional disability in people with persistent nonspecific low back pain when compared to the sham.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Abstract : Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by increased blood sugar levels. The current management of DM to date has a target of controlling blood glucose, but the therapy cannot be separated from long-term drug side effects. Acupuncture can be an option as an adjunct therapy for DM. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness between manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture. Methods: This study was a randomized control experimental study with a pretest and posttest design using 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 4 groups: a normal group, a diabetes group, an acupuncture group, and a laser group. Manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture were performed 6 times in two weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, the cell density of Langerhans islets, and side effects were assessed and compared among the 4 groups. Results: The highest mean cell density of Langerhans islets was found in the laser and acupuncture group, and the lowest was found in the diabetes group. In the post hoc analysis, the normal, acupuncture, and the laser groups had a significantly higher mean cell density than the diabetes group. The lowest mean FBG level was in the laser group, followed by the acupuncture group, and the highest was in the diabetes group, but this difference was not significant. There were no serious side effects from the use of manual acupuncture or laser acupuncture. Conclusion: Both manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture can improve the histological findings of Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic rats, and both are safe to use.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-02-28

    Abstract : Background: Pain is a major complaint in cancer patients and a global problem that requires medical attention, including pain in cervical cancer. Although pharmacotherapy has been used for the treatment of cancer pain, there are still around 40% cannot be treated only with pharmacotherapy. Objectives: To determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on pain in stage III cervical cancer patients. Methods: Twenty-eight stage III cervical cancer patients were divided into two groups (14 treatments and 14 controls) with randomized control trial design. The treatment group received EA with a frequency of 2/20-25 Hz at points of ST36, SP6, LI4 and LR3 for 30 minutes, while the control group did not receive EA. Both groups were given paracetamol and codeine at the same dose. Assessment was carried out by measuring pain scale (VAS), plasma β-endorphin levels, and quality of life/QoL (EORTC QLQ-C30) before and after therapy. Results: The average reduction in VAS in the treatment group (2.71 ± 1.14) compared to the control group (0.71 ± 1.33; p < 0.001), average increase in plasma β-endorphin levels in the treatment group (88.57 ± 52.46 pg/ml) compared to the control group (12.86 ± 56.76 pg/ml; p = 0.001), and in QoL, there were significant differences in symptom improvement between the treatment and control groups in the domain of fatigue, pain, insomnia and overall QoL (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Medical therapy combined with EA decreased pain scale, increased plasma β-endorphin levels, and improved the QoL for stage III cervical cancer patients.

    Abstract
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