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  • Perspectives2010-06-01

    Possible Applications for Fascial Anatomy and Fasciaology in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Yu Baia, Lin Yuana*, Kwang-Sup Sohb, Byung-Cheon Leeb, Yong Huangc, Chun-lei Wangc, Jun Wangd, Jin-peng Wua, Jing-xing Daia, Janos Palhalmie, Ou Shad, David Tai Wai Yewf

    Abstract : Research using medical imaging instruments such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has led to the proposal that the fascial network distributed over the human body is the anatomical basis for the acupoints and meridians of traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, we put forward a new theory of anatomy called fascial anatomy. In fascial anatomy, a human body is divided into two major systems. One is the supporting-storing system of unspecialized connective tissues. The other is a functional system. An undifferentiated non-specific connective tissue network, with the participation of the nervous and the immune systems, constitutes the supporting-storing system of the human body. The various differentiated functional cells in the body that are supported and surrounded by the supporting-storing system constitute the functional system. The discipline that studies the supporting-storing system and the mutual relationship between this system and the functional system in a living human body is called fasciaology. The establishment of fascial anatomy and fasciaology opens a new research field in anatomy; consequently, fasciaology will play a significant role in biological medicine and traditional Chinese medical research, as well as future clinical practice.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Acupuncture, one of the primary methods of treatment in traditional Oriental medicine, is based on a system of meridians. Along the meridians lie acupuncture points or acupoints, which are stimulated by needling, pressure or heat to resolve a clinical problem. A number of methods have been used to identify meridians and to explain them anatomically. Thus, tendinomuscular structures, primo-vessels (Bonghan ducts), regions of increased temperature and low skin resistance have been suggested to represent meridians or as methods to identify them. However, none of these methods have met the criteria for a meridian, an entity that, when stimulated by acupuncture can result in clinical improvement. More recently, modern physiologists have put forward the “neural hypothesis” stating that the clinical influence of acupuncture is transmitted primarily through stimulation of sensory nerves that provide signals to the brain, which processes this information and then causes clinical changes associated with treatment. Although additional research is warranted to investigate the role of some of the structures identified, it seems clear that the peripheral and central nervous system can now be considered to be the most rational basis for defining meridians. The meridian maps and associated acupoints located along them are best viewed as road maps that can guide practitioners towards applying acupuncture to achieve optimal clinical results.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Electrical stimulation at acupuncture points (acupoints) has been investigated for its utility in lowering blood glucose in hyperglycemic humans and animal models. Only two studies were found using electroacupuncture in human subjects, and in both of these, the participants were normal (nondiabetic) and electrical stimulation was carried out at several acupoints. It had a hypoglycemic effect in obese women with calorific restriction diet using electrical stimulation of 2 Hz for 30 minutes/day for 20 days, but no change occurred in blood glucose of fasted patients in the other study using 1 Hz for 15 minutes. Fourteen animal studies were found, of which, 11 were performed in diabetic and normal rats. A hypoglycemic effect was observed in fasted type 1 diabetic rats using the Zusanli (ST36) leg acupoint with electrical stimulation of 15 Hz for 30 minutes and 60 minutes. In fasted type 2 diabetic rats, blood glucose was lowered using the Zusanli acupoint with electrical stimulation parameters of 15 Hz and 10 mA for 30 minutes. Also, using the Zhongwan (CV12) abdomen acupoint with electrical stimulation parameters of 15 Hz and 10 mA for 90 minutes had a hypoglycemic effect in fasted type 2 diabetic rats. In fasted normal rats, electrical stimulation of 2 Hz or 15 Hz for 30 minutes at the Zusanli or Zhongwan acupoint caused a decrease in blood glucose. Future studies are required in fasted diabetic rats to determine the effect of electroacupuncture on blood levels of insulin, lipids, fatty acids and β-endorphin, and blood flow and nerve conduction velocity. Studies with fasted normal and diabetic human subjects treated by electroacupuncture are warranted using data from animal experiments to inform such studies.

    Abstract
  • Research article2013-04-01

    Abstract : The nucleus of the solitary tract (nucleus tractus solitarii; NTS) is a primary center for both visceral afferents and somatic afferents. Previous experiments have demonstrated that the NTS is closely connected to the stomach and acupoints in the Yangming Stomach Meridian of Foot (ST Meridian). In this study, extracellular recording and immunochemistry methods were used to analyze the discharge of neurons and c-Fos protein expression in the NTS following acupuncture at different acupoints and a nonacupoint. A total of 104 discharging neurons were detected in the NTS of 52 rats, of which 86 provided complete data. After acupuncture at Sibai (ST 2), Zusanli (ST 36), Neiting (ST 44), Quanliao (SI 18), and the nonacupoint, the neuron response rate in the NTS was 65.12%, 51.16%, 46.51%, 34.88% and 31.40% respectively. For neuron response rate, there was a significant difference among Sibai (ST 2), Zusanli (ST 36), Neiting (ST 44), Quanliao (SI 18), and the nonacupoint (p 

    Abstract
  • Research article2015-02-01

    Successful Practice of Electroacupuncture Analgesia in Equine Surgery

    Eldessouky Sheta1*, Safwat Ragab2, Haithem Farghali1, Asmaa EL-Sherif3

    Abstract : Electroacupuncture analgesia was used for surgery in horses and donkeys. A KWD-808 electrical stimulator was used to incrementally induce a dense, dispersed wave output at frequencies from 20 to 55 Hz, which was maintained at a frequency of 55 Hz, and to change the amplitude of the wave to the best grading number for the suggested operation in each animal. Induction of analgesia lasted for 20–30 minutes, and the effect of analgesia was maintained for 20–45 minutes depending on the type of surgery performed. The exhibited clinical signs, physical examination data, and the responses of all animals were used for evaluating the periods of analgesia. Although the majority of the cases (95%) had no response to strong surgical pain, they experienced significant increases in heart rates and respiratory rates during induction. The lack of pain, relaxed surgical procedures, reduced intraoperative bleeding, and improved healing without complications were all definite benefits of using electroacupuncture analgesia in surgery. Thus, this study has provided surgical evidence supporting the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia, as well as confirming its reliability, in the field of equine anesthesia and surgery.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Primary dysmenorrhea is the most common gynecological symptom reported by women and constitutes a high health, social, and economic burden. Chemotherapies, along with their side effects, have not yielded satisfactory outcomes. Alternative nonpharmacological interventions, including acupuncture and acupressure, have been advocated, but evidence regarding their beneficial effect is inconclusive. This study sought to obtain evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture and acupressure interventions. Twelve electronic databases were searched by using menstrual pain intensity and quality of life as primary and secondary outcomes, respectively, with the PEDro guideline for quality appraisal. Data unsuitable for a meta-analysis were reported as descriptive data. The search yielded 38 citations, from which eight studies were systematically reviewed, four of the eight being eligible for meta-analysis. The systematic review showed moderate methodological quality with a mean of 6.1 out of 10 on the PEDro quality scale. Acupressure showed evidence of pain relief while acupuncture improved both the mental and the physical components of quality of life. In conclusion, physiotherapists should consider using acupuncture and acupressure to treat primary dysmenorrhea, but a need exists for higher quality, randomized, blinded, sham-controlled trials with adequate sample sizes to establish clearly the effects of these modalities.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : We showed that the brain areas such as the thalamus, insula and anterior cingulate cortex were activated by heating the tail of monkeys in 47°C water and those activations were suppressed by electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 and LI4 acupoints, and that histamine and dopamine release was increased after pain stimulus in rats and the changes were completely abolished by EA at ST36 and ST37 acupoints and that different manual acupuncture at ST36 appear to change the neural coding of electrical signals in the spinal dorsal horn through WDR neurons in rats. In this meeting we will show with Near-infrared Spectroscopy and the interview sheet about the Eastern medicine complaint that the subjects whose center-of-gravity value are lighter than a standard value are “blood deficiency”, the subjects whose center-of-gravity value is heavier than a standard value are “blood stasis”, the subjects whose integration value are higher than a standard value are “qi stagnancy” or normal, and the subjects whose integration value are lower than a standard value are “qi deficiency” and that acupunture stimulation on SP6 or on ST36 balanced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) but that on LU6 decreased rCBF, and that the simultaneous acupunture stimulation on DU20 and Ex-HN4 reduced rCBF at the frontal cortex. However, independent acupunture stimulation on DU20 or Ex-HN4 failed to change rCBF. We would like to also report change of rCBF by pain and painkilling.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2018-12-01

    Effect of Acupressure on Preoperative Cesarean Section Anxiety

    Foziyeh Abadi1, Faezeh Abadi1*, Zhila Fereidouni2, Mehdi Amirkhani3, Shahnaz Karimi4, Majid Najafi Kalyani5

    Abstract : Anxiety is a common preoperative problem in cesarean section candidates. Nonpharmacologic anxiety control has been demonstrated to be more suitable in pregnant women. The current study was a randomized, single-blind clinical trial which evaluated the effect of acupressure on preoperative C-section anxiety. In this study, 60 patients facing surgery were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Those patients in the intervention group received simultaneous acupressure at the Yintang and HE-7 acupoints for 5 minutes before surgery, and patients in the control group received intervention at a sham acupoint. The anxiety level of patients was preoperatively assessed twice using the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The mean anxiety scores of the two groups were shown to be insignificantly different before the intervention (p = 0.859), whereas a significant difference between the mean anxiety scores of the two groups was observed after the intervention (p = 0.001), suggesting that acupressure reduced the anxiety of patients before surgery.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Auriculotherapy has been extensively used for chronic spontaneous urticaria in China. However, the evidence of its effectiveness and safety for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria is insufficient. Hence, we conducted this study to compare auriculotherapy or auriculotherapy joint treatment with Western medicine for the cure of chronic spontaneous urticaria. This meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials showed that auriculotherapy or auriculotherapy joint treatment was significantly superior to Western medicine in curing clinical signs and symptoms of chronic spontaneous urticaria [odds ration (OR), 2.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.54–4.43; p = 0.0004) and also better in total effect rate (OR, 3.81; 95% CI, 2.07–7.01; p<0.0001). But, auriculotherapy or auriculotherapy joint treatment was similar to Western medicine in improving clinical signs and symptoms of chronic spontaneous urticaria (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.35–1.56; p = 0.42). Auriculotherapy or auriculotherapy joint treatment was safer than Western medicine for curing chronic spontaneous urticaria (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09–0.80; p = 0.02). Auriculotherapy alone or auriculotherapy joint treatment appears to be more effective and safer than Western medicine that contains antihistamines in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the unclear risk bias of methodological quality, and further studies with large-scale, better, and more rigorously designed protocol are necessary to prove these findings.

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
April, 2021
Vol.14 No.2

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Case Report2021-02-28

    Abstract : The present case study illustrates the case of a 47-year-old female (Ms X) with primary progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS) who presented with central post-stroke pain (CPSP) over her left shoulder and underwent acupuncture treatment (AT) since she appeared irresponsive to conventional treatment. The aim of this case study is to explore the effectiveness of acupuncture as a complimentary treatment in improving central neurogenic pain in MS patients affected by CPSP. AT lasted six weeks, some modification of the conventional AT points was required to ensure continuity and safety of the treatment plan. In fact, Ms X suffered from gingivitis that led to hypersensitivity of her left upper limb (UL) to acupuncture needling; moreover, she experienced sensation loss in her legs as a result of post-stroke complications. The outcome showed that the subject’s shoulder range of motion (ROM), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and pain improved remarkably, enabling Ms X to resume post-stroke rehabilitation and reduce her analgesic intake.

    Abstract
  • Editorial2020-04-01
  • Research Article2020-12-01

    Abstract : Background: Anxiety is a common complaint of patients before diagnostic or therapeutic invasive procedures, especially before open-heart surgery. The most well-known method to reduce anxiety is the use of sedatives, which have pronounced side effects. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acupressure on anxiety in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Method: This is a randomized clinical trial study conducted on 90 patients who were candidates for open-heart surgery. The patients were randomly assigned into either intervention or control groups. Acupressure intervention was applied at three real acupoints over two consecutive days in the intervention group. The control group received acupressure on sham points. We used Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to assess anxiety in our study. Results: The results showed that before acupressure, there was no statistically significant difference between state anxiety scores and intergroup traits, and this difference was only significant in state anxiety after the second intervention. State and trait anxiety were significant before and after the intervention in the test group, respectively include (p < 0.001) (p = 0.01), but these changes in the control group did not show a statistically significant difference. After completing the second phase of the intervention at the actual sites, systolic blood pressure (p = 0.007) and heart rate (p = 0.001) decreased significantly. However, acupressure did not have a significant effect on diastolic blood pressure in any of the groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the application of acupressure in patients who are candidates for open-heart surgery can reduce their state anxiety. Further larger-scale and rigorous studies are warranted.

    Abstract
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  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Abstract : Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by increased blood sugar levels. The current management of DM to date has a target of controlling blood glucose, but the therapy cannot be separated from long-term drug side effects. Acupuncture can be an option as an adjunct therapy for DM. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness between manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture. Methods: This study was a randomized control experimental study with a pretest and posttest design using 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 4 groups: a normal group, a diabetes group, an acupuncture group, and a laser group. Manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture were performed 6 times in two weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, the cell density of Langerhans islets, and side effects were assessed and compared among the 4 groups. Results: The highest mean cell density of Langerhans islets was found in the laser and acupuncture group, and the lowest was found in the diabetes group. In the post hoc analysis, the normal, acupuncture, and the laser groups had a significantly higher mean cell density than the diabetes group. The lowest mean FBG level was in the laser group, followed by the acupuncture group, and the highest was in the diabetes group, but this difference was not significant. There were no serious side effects from the use of manual acupuncture or laser acupuncture. Conclusion: Both manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture can improve the histological findings of Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic rats, and both are safe to use.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-02-28

    Abstract : Background: Pain is a major complaint in cancer patients and a global problem that requires medical attention, including pain in cervical cancer. Although pharmacotherapy has been used for the treatment of cancer pain, there are still around 40% cannot be treated only with pharmacotherapy. Objectives: To determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on pain in stage III cervical cancer patients. Methods: Twenty-eight stage III cervical cancer patients were divided into two groups (14 treatments and 14 controls) with randomized control trial design. The treatment group received EA with a frequency of 2/20-25 Hz at points of ST36, SP6, LI4 and LR3 for 30 minutes, while the control group did not receive EA. Both groups were given paracetamol and codeine at the same dose. Assessment was carried out by measuring pain scale (VAS), plasma β-endorphin levels, and quality of life/QoL (EORTC QLQ-C30) before and after therapy. Results: The average reduction in VAS in the treatment group (2.71 ± 1.14) compared to the control group (0.71 ± 1.33; p < 0.001), average increase in plasma β-endorphin levels in the treatment group (88.57 ± 52.46 pg/ml) compared to the control group (12.86 ± 56.76 pg/ml; p = 0.001), and in QoL, there were significant differences in symptom improvement between the treatment and control groups in the domain of fatigue, pain, insomnia and overall QoL (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Medical therapy combined with EA decreased pain scale, increased plasma β-endorphin levels, and improved the QoL for stage III cervical cancer patients.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-10-01

    The Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Spasticity in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Dian E. Putri 1, *, Adiningsih Srilestari 1, Kemas Abdurrohim 1, Irawan Mangunatmadja 2, Luh K. Wahyuni 3

    Abstract : Background: Spasticity in cerebral palsy is one of the most common disabilities of children in developing countries. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of laser acupuncture on spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with spastic cerebral palsy at 2 to 10 years. The patients were categorized into two groups: the control group and treatment group. Laser acupuncture was applied on GV20, GV14, LI4, GB34, and LR3 (power 50 mW, 785 nm, 1 Joule, 40 seconds) three times a week for 12 sessions in the treatment group and placebo laser acupuncture on the same points in the control group. The spasticity was measured using the Modified Ashworth Scale before and after complete sessions. Results: The results showed that there was a significant reduction in the Modified Ashworth Scale score in the treatment group compared with the control group (p = 0.003). Conclusions: This study suggest that laser acupuncture on GV20, GV14, LI4, GB34, and LR3 can reduce spasticity for children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Abstract
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