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JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Vol.17 No.3
June, 2024

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2023-04-30

    The Effects of Manual Acupuncture on Mitochondrial Fusion and Fission Gene Expression in Rat Spleen

    Yu-Mi Lee1,†, Dong-Hee Choi2,†, Jeong-Hye Park2, Min-Woo Cheon3, Jae Gwan Kim1, Jeong-Sang Kim2, Taejin Choi4, Hye-Ran Kim2, Daehwan Youn2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(2): 49-55 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.2.49
    Abstract

    Background: A significant amount of research has been conducted to establish the validity of acupuncture, and it has been demonstrated through animal disease model studies that acupuncture influences mitochondrial changes. However, to more accurately examine the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment effectiveness in pathological models, it is crucial to investigate changes in disease-free animals. Among various hypotheses regarding the effects of acupuncture on the body, we focused on the result that acupuncture stimulation is related to mitochondria.Objectives: We examined the effects of acupuncture mitochondrial fission and fusionrelated mediators in disease-free Sprague Dawley (SD) rats' spleen meridian acupoints.Methods: SD rats were divided into control, SP1, SP2, SP3, SP5, and SP9 acupuncture groups. Acupuncture was performed at each point for 10 minutes daily for four days. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and fission protein 1 (Fis1) levels were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), while dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), optic atrophy-1 (OPA1), mitofusin-1 (MFN1), and mitofusin-2 (MFN2) levels were assessed via western blotting. Mitochondria protein concentrations and NADH dehydrogenase activity in spleen tissues were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: PGC-1α expression decreased in the SP1 (p < 0.01), SP5 (p < 0.05), and SP9 (p < 0.05) groups, while Fis1 expression increased in the SP1 (p < 0.01), SP5 (p < 0.01), and SP9 (p < 0.05) groups. DRP1, OPA1, MFN1, and MFN2 levels exhibited no significant changes. Mitochondrial protein concentrations decreased in the SP2 (p < 0.01), SP3 (p < 0.01), SP5 (p < 0.01), and SP9 (p < 0.01) groups, while NADH dehydrogenase activity decreased in the SP2 (p < 0.05) and SP9 (p < 0.05) groups.Conclusion: Acupuncture at the SP9 acupoint influenced the mitochondrial fission pathway by modulating PGC-1α and Fis1 mediators in the rat spleen under non-disease conditions.

  • Research Article2023-08-31

    Investigation of the Effects of Acupuncture on Post-Operative Chest Pain after Open Heart Surgery

    Sharareh Roshanzamir1, Yas Haririan1, Rezvan Ghaderpanah2, Leila Sadat Mohamadi Jahromi1,*, Alireza Dabbaghmanesh3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(4): 133-138 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.4.133
    Abstract

    Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) accounts for more than half of all adult cardiac surgeries worldwide. Post-operative chest pain is a common CABG complication and can cause significant discomfort.Objectives: Because taking large amounts of analgesics can have many side effects, we evaluated whether acupuncture effectively reduces pain and the use of analgesics by CABG patients.Methods: In this clinical trial, 30 patients who had recently undergone CABG were randomly allocated to two groups. For both groups, exercise therapy and routine analgesics were recommended. The intervention group underwent bilateral acupuncture in distinct acupoints, including the HT3, HT4, HT5, HT6, HT7, PC3, PC5, PC6, and PC7 for 10 daily sessions constantly. Visual analog scale (VAS) and analgesic use were evaluated in both groups at baseline and after completing the 10-day treatment.Results: Our analysis revealed significant decreases in the mean VAS scores in both the intervention and the control group, and that the reduction was more significant in the acupuncture group (p < 0.001). Moreover, analgesic use was significantly lower in the acupuncture group when compared with the control group (p < 0.001).Conclusion: Our findings highlight acupuncture as an alternative method of controlling CABG-associated post-operative chest pain and reducing the use of analgesics, which might have many side effects.

  • Clinical Study Protocol2023-02-28

    Add-on Effect and Safety of Pharmacopuncture Therapy in the Treatment of Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    Yoona Oh1,†, Chang-Hyun Han2,3,†, Yeonhak Kim1, Jihun Kim1, Changsop Yang2, Young Eun Choi4, Byoung-Kab Kang2, Gi Young Yang1,5, Byung Ryul Lee1,5, Eunseok Kim1,5,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(1): 40-48 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.1.40
    Abstract

    Background: Recently, Korean Medicine treatment with pharmacopuncture therapy (PPT) has been increasingly used in clinical practice to improve symptoms in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PPT in addition to conventional Korean Medicine treatment (CKMT) for the treatment of patients with LSS, compared with CKMT alone.Methods: This study is designed as a pragmatic, randomized, two-armed, parallel, stratified (by sex), controlled pilot trial. Forty patients diagnosed with LSS will be randomly allocated to the PPT + CKMT group or the CKMT group. Patients in the two groups will receive treatment two times weekly for 5 weeks. The primary outcome will be the mean change in the 100-mm visual analog scale score from the baseline to the end of treatment (week 5). The secondary outcomes will include the clinically important difference, Zurich Claudication Questionnaire score, self-reported walking capacity, Modified–Modified Schober test, EuroQol 5-dimension 5-level questionnaire, and Patients’ Global Impression of Change. Adverse events will be assessed at each visit.Discussion: The results of this study will provide meaningful data to evaluate the add-on effect and safety of PPT in the medical care of patients with LSS.

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  • Brief Report2023-12-31

    Effect of Needling at Selected Acupuncture Points (GB39, BL17, LR13) on Hemoglobin Levels in Anemia: a Randomized Placebo Controlled Study

    K. Gayathri Devi1, A. Mooventhan1,2,*, N. Mangaiarkarasi1, N. Manavalan3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(6): 263-267 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.6.263
    Abstract

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is an important public health issue in India. This study was performed to determine the impact of acupuncture at the GB39, BL17, and LR13 points on hemoglobin levels, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and red cell distribution width (RDW) in people with IDA. One hundred women with IDA were randomly allocated to the acupuncture group (AG) or placebo control group (PCG). For 30 minutes per day, daily for 2 weeks, the AG received acupuncture at GB39, BL17, and LR13, while the PCG received needling at non-acupuncture points. Outcomes were assessed before and after the intervention. We found a significant increase (p < 0.001) in hemoglobin level (AG 10.39-11.38 g/dl, effect size 0.785; PCG 10.58-10.40 g/dl, effect size 0.191), MCH (AG 25.69-27.50 fl, effect size 0.418; PCG 27.43-27.23 fl, effect size 0.058), and RDW (AG 15.12-16.41 fl, effect size 0.626; PCG 14.91-14.94 fl, effect size 0.017) in the AG compared to the PCG. Results suggest that needling at the GB39, BL17, and LR13 acupuncture points is more effective in treating people with IDA than needling at non-acupuncture points.

  • Research Article2023-02-28

    Influence of Psychological Factors in Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients on De qi: a Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Ni-juan Hu1, Chun-hua Li1, Pei Wang2, Gui-wen Wu3, Liang-xiao Ma4,*, Jiang Zhu4,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(1): 20-29 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.1.20
    Abstract

    Background: De qi , the needling sensation, is important in acupuncture treatment. Almost all studies believe that deep needling and manipulation could achieve a significant de qi sensation. However, relatively few studies have examined the effect of psychological factors on de qi, and those that did often reached different conclusions.Objectives: To explore the influence of psychologic factors on de qi in patients with primary dysmenorrhea (PD).Methods: Sixty-eight PD patients with cold and dampness stagnation were randomly allocated to de qi (deep insertion using thick needles, with manipulation, n=17) and non-de qi groups (shallow insertion using thin needles, without manipulation, n=51). Both groups received bilateral needling at Sanyinjiao (SP6) for 30 min. De qi was assessed using the Acupuncture De qi Clinical Assessment Scale (ADCAS). The patients’ acupuncture-related anxiety and their expectations of the relationship between needle sensation and curative effect were evaluated using a five-point and four-point scale, respectively.Results: Within the de qi group, all patients experienced the de qi sensation, although anxiety levels were unrelated to de qi. Patients’ expectations correlated negatively with de qi timing, and positively with electric sensation. Within the non-de qi group, 59.5% of patients experienced de qi. Between those who experienced it and those who did not, no significant differences were found in anxiety levels, although patients’ expectations differed significantly. Among patients who experienced de qi sensations in the non-de qi group, anxiety and throbbing were positively correlated. Additionally, patients’ expectations correlated positively with de qi intensity, as well as coldness, and numbness.Conclusion: Psychological factors should be considered when studying de qi since PD patients’ expectations could influence the de qi sensation at SP6.

  • Research Article2023-06-30

    Application of Biophysical Properties of Meridians in the Visualization of Pericardium Meridian

    Feng Xiong1, Ruimin Xu2, Tongju Li3, Jinyu Wang1,4, Qingchuan Hu3, Xiaojing Song1, Guangjun Wang1, Huanhuan Su3, Shuyong Jia1, Shuyou Wang1, Zongxiang Zhu2,5, Weibo Zhang1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(3): 101-108 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.3.101
    Abstract

    Background: The biophysical properties of the meridian system, an important concept of traditional Chinese medicine, include low impedance, resounding voice, and high acoustic conductance, all of which are helpful for elucidating the essence of meridians.Objectives: To visualize the human pericardium meridian (PC) based on the resounding voice property of meridians.Methods: Visualization of the PC was performed by injection of fluorescein sodium at the PC6 acupoint (Neiguan) on the PC. Before injection, percussion active points (PAPs) were identified by the virtue of their resounding voice properties. After injection, the trajectories of fluorescein migration throughout the body surface were recorded and analyzed. The distribution of fluorescein in the tissue was further studied using cross-sections of hind limbs of mini-pigs, in which fluorescein was injected into low impedance points.Results: The identified PAP lines were colocalized with PC. Following intradermal fluorescein injection, 1-3 fluorescent lines, which were unrelated to the arm veins, were observed in 7 of 10 participants; 85.4% of fluorescent signals were coincident with PAPs and their intensity had a negative correlation with the body mass index (r = –0.56, p = 0.045). Cross-sections showed a Y-shaped fluorescence pattern where the two migration lines on the surface were the two vertices of the “Y.”Conclusion: The trajectories of fluorescein in the body are suggestive of the anatomical structure of meridians. The PC is related to the deep horizontal interstitial channels that connect to the body surface through vertical interstitial spaces. These biophysical properties and techniques for meridian visualization are valuable for revealing the anatomical structure of meridians.

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