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JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
October, 2022
Vol.15 No.5

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2021-12-31

    Mechanisms of Electroacupuncture Pretreatment in Alleviating Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Interactions between the Cerebellar Fastigial Nucleus and Lateral Hypothalamic Area

    Qing Yu1,2, Li-bin Wu1, Fan Zhang1, Xiao-tong Wei1, Pian-pian Chen1, Shuai-ya Wang1, Mei-yi Cai1, Qi Shu1, Liao-yuan Li1, Zi-jian Wu2,3, Rong-lin Cai2,3,*, Ling Hu2,3,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(6): 207-218 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.6.207

    Abstract : Background: Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is an important mechanism of post-myocardial infarction injury and a main cause of death in patients with ischemic heart disease. Electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment is effective for the prevention and treatment of MIRI, but mechanisms mediating the effects of cardiovascular disease EA treatments remain unclear.Objectives: To determine whether the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) are involved in the protective effects of EA stimulation on MIRI. Methods: EA pretreatment was performed for 7 days before the establishment of the MIRI model. ST-segment changes on electrocardiograms were recorded and the Curtis–Walker arrhythmia score was used to evaluate changes in reperfusion injury. Hematoxylin–eosin staining was applied to evaluate the pathological and morphological changes in myocardial tissue. c-fos expression in the LHA and FN was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Glutamic (Glu) and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical method. Results: EA pretreatment reduced ST-segment elevation, arrhythmia scores, and morphological changes in MIRI myocardial cells in rats, and decreased the c-fos protein expression in LHA/FN nuclei. MIRI was associated with an imbalance between GABA and Glu levels, whereas EA pretreatment increased GABA levels and decreased Glu levels in the LHA/FN. Conclusion: FN and LHA are involved in the EA-mediated attenuation of MIRI. Pretreatment with EA plays a protective role in the myocardium by regulating Glu and GABA release in the LHA and FN.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Abstract : Background: Despite the adherence to medications, the control of the modifiable key risk factor—intraocular pressure (IOP)—for the progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in diabetics is usually difficult; hence, many glaucoma patients try other alternative therapeutic options. Objectives: This randomized controlled study investigated the short-term IOP response to the combined effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation over acupoint (Acu-TENS) and yoga ocular exercise in type 2 diabetics with POAG. Methods: Eighty diabetics with bilateral POAG, ages ≥ 50 years, IOP > 21 mmHg in both eyes, and a body mass index below 30 kg/m2 were included in this trial. The patients were randomly assigned to group A (n = 40; this group received 20 minutes of yoga ocular exercise followed by 20 minutes of active Acu-TENS over bilateral BL 61 and BL 62 acupoints) and group B (n = 40; this group received the same protocol as group A but with a placebo Acu-TENS). The repeated measurement of IOP were recorded before, immediately after, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after the sessions. Results: The repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a greater significant decline of IOP in group A than group B in both eyes at the consecutive intervals of time measurements. Conclusion: According to this short-term observation, the addition of Acu-TENS to yoga ocular exercise could reduce the high IOP in diabetic patients with POAG, but further longterm trials are needed.

    Abstract
  • Perspective Article2022-08-31

    Correlation Between the Sinew Channels with the Myofascial System, Pathology, and Treatment

    Pablo Nava Jaimes*, Alejandro Martínez Reyes, Daniel García Lara, Abel Cristian Patiño Coyuca
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 201-213 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.201

    Abstract : The sinew channels are a tendon and muscle network, and their description is based on the observation presented on the Huangdi Neijing Ling Shu. However, the myofascial system is an uninterrupted series of connective tissue that is comprised of layers that run in different directions. The similarities on these pathways are compared, such as a brief description on the myofascial pain syndrome and its similitude with the Impediment disorder from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Furthermore, we discuss the treatment of these conditions from a Traditional Chinese Medicine perspective.

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  • Research Article2022-04-30

    Perioperative Analgesic Efficacy of Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture for Canine Mastectomy Combined with Ovariohysterectomy: a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Carolina de Carvalho Bacarin, Gabriel Montoro Nicácio, Letícia Maria de Lima Cerazo, Luíza Guimarães Peruchi, Renata Navarro Cassu*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(2): 121-129 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.2.121

    Abstract : Background: Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture (YNSA) is a therapy based on the stimulation of points on the scalp and applied to treat different states of pain.Objectives: To investigate the analgesic efficacy of YNSA for dogs undergoing radical unilateral mastectomy with ovariohysterectomy.Methods: Twenty-four dogs were randomly distributed into two treatments (n = 12, per group): bilateral stimulation of basic B, D, and E points (YNSA group) and no application of acupuncture (control group). All dogs were sedated with morphine; anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Fentanyl was intraoperatively administered to control cardiovascular responses to surgical stimulation. Postoperative pain was assessed using an interactive visual analog scale (IVAS) and the short-form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (CMPS-SF). Morphine was administered as rescue analgesia. Data were analyzed using t-tests, Fisher’s exact test, Mann–Whitney U test, and Friedman test (p < 0.05).Results: Intraoperatively, the number of dogs requiring supplemental analgesic and the number of doses of fentanyl were lower in the YNSA group than in the control group (p = 0.027-0.034). The IVAS pain scores recorded from 0.5 h to 1 h post-extubation in the YNSA group were lower than those in the control group (p = 0.021-0.023). Postoperative rescue analgesia and CMPS-SF pain scores did not differ between the groups.Conclusion: YNSA decreases intraoperative fentanyl requirements and provides minimal postoperative analgesic benefits to dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy with ovariohysterectomy.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2022-06-30

    Comparison of an Iranian Traditional Massage (Fateh Method) with Physiotherapy and Acupuncture for Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Parva Namiranian1, Mehrdad Karimi1, Seyede Zahra Emami Razavi2, Ahmad Fateh Garoos1, Mohammad Hossein Ayati1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 163-173 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.163

    Abstract : Background: Low back pain (LBP) is currently a major reason for disability worldwide. Therapeutic massage is one of the most popular non-pharmacological methods for managing chronic LBP (CLBP), and the Fateh method is a massage technique based on Iranian Traditional Medicine.Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the effects of Fateh massage with those of acupuncture and physiotherapy on relieving pain and disability in CLBP.Methods: Eighty-four patients with CLBP were categorized into groups that received Fateh massage, acupuncture, or physiotherapy. Each group included 28 randomly assigned patients who completed 10 sessions of therapy. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and Roland–Morris disability scores were evaluated at baseline, after intervention, and four weeks later. The findings were analyzed with SPSS software.Results: The baseline VAS and Roland–Morris scores of the three study groups did not indicate significant differences (p > 0.05). All three groups showed significant pre-post improvements in both scores (p < 0.05). At the end of the treatment sessions, the three groups showed no significant difference in the reductions in pain intensity and disability score (p > 0.05). Improvements in disability and pain between the first and third time points were significant in all three groups (p < 0.05 for each group). In addition, the results of massage, physiotherapy, and acupuncture groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). No adverse events occurred in the patients.Conclusion: The effects of Fateh massage were comparable to those of acupuncture and physiotherapy in reducing pain and disability in patients with CLBP.

    Abstract
  • Clinical Study Protocol2021-04-30

    A Study on the Effects of Dry Needling in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Spasticity: Protocol of a Randomized Waitlist-Controlled Trial

    Omid Motamedzadeh1,2, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari1,2,3,*, Soofia Naghdi1,2, Amirreza Azimi4, Ashraf Mahmoudzadeh5, Sandra Calvo6, Pablo Herrero7

    Abstract : Background: Spasticity is a common symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dry needling (DN) has been considered a useful method for the treatment of spasticity; however, there are no studies on the effects of DN on spasticity in patients with MS. We propose a study protocol aiming to investigate the effects of DN on spasticity in patients with MS. Methods: MS patients with plantar flexor spasticity will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to the DN group, where they will be receiving a single session of DN, one minute for each head of gastrocnemius muscle, or to the waiting list control group with no intervention. Primary outcome measures are the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) for gastrocnemius spasticity, passive resistive torque, and podography for foot pressure distribution. The ankle active and passive range of dorsiflexion and Timed Up and Go tests are the secondary outcome measures. All outcomes will be measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and one week later. A mixed-model, general linear model, and two-way repeated-measures ANOVA will be used to compare the quantitative variables between groups and within groups at the measurement time points. The MAS ordinal measure of spasticity will be compared between groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and both the Friedman test and Wilcoxon test will be used for within-group changes. Discussion: This study will provide primary evidence on the effects of DN on gastrocnemius muscle spasticity and gait in patients with MS. Trial registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT): IRCT20190617043918N1.

    Abstract
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