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JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
June, 2022
Vol.15 No.3

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2021-06-30

    Abstract : Background: Nursing students experience clinical stress frequently and severely. The application of acupressure is reported to be effective in stress management.Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the effects of acupressure on reducing the stress of nursing students in clinical practice. Methods: This study was carried out using a single-blind randomized controlled experimental design. The experimental and control groups were randomly determined by using a previously prepared randomization checklist. A Participant Information Form, VAS, and the State Anxiety Inventory were applied to all students before practice. Acupressure was performed on the HT7 point and Yintang point (EX-HN3), respectively, every five minutes for a total of 30 minutes in the experimental group. Results: The level of stress experienced by the students in the experimental group before the intervention according to VAS was 6.95 ± 1.57, and it was determined as 2.82 ± 1.94 after the third application (p < 0.05). The mean clinical stress score before the application was 46.54 ± 3.81, and after the 3rd week of application, it was 25.15 ± 5.26 (p < 0.05). It was observed that the students' stress levels decreased in all measurements made after the acupressure intervention. Conclusion: This study determined that acupressure effectively reduces the stress levels of nursing students, and it may be applied in clinical stress management.

    Abstract
  • Letter to the Editor2021-02-28
  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Visible Meridian Phenomena after Acupuncture: A Series of Case Reports

    Nikolay Dimitrov1, Nikola Tomov2, Dimitrinka Atanasova1,3,*, Stiliyan Iliev1, Tatyana Tomova4, Dimitar Sivrev1, Zoya Goranova4

    Abstract : Background: In accordance with the meridian theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), meridian phenomena are observed along the course of a meridian following acupuncture. Their visible manifestations include alterations in the color (reddening or whitening) of the skin as well as papule and vesicle formation. Objectives: The aim of the present work is to report a series of visible meridian phenomena manifested in human subjects and to correlate them to TCM concepts. A total of 1,200 patients, on whom classical acupuncture (with standard single-use needles without electrostimulation or moxibustion) was applied, were carefully observed and documented. Methods: Visible meridian phenomena were photographed using standard photographical equipment and compared to classical acupuncture channels used by TCM. Results: Ten patients (5 male, 5 female) exhibited visible meridian phenomena. Lines, concurring with the meridians, were observed: white lines in seven cases and red lines in three cases. The duration of the two kinds of phenomena was different. White lines remained visible for a shorter period (10-15 min), whereas red lines were seen for up to one hour after needle removal. Conclusion: These observations indicate that visible meridian phenomena following acupuncture are objective, albeit rare, findings that coincide with the acupuncture channels described in the classical works of TCM. The presence of such phenomena provides a new insight into the concept of meridians and explains the development of the idea in its historical context.

    Abstract
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  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Comparison of the Effects of Electroacupuncture and Melatonin on Nerve Regeneration in Experimentally Nerve-Damaged Rats

    Yasemin Özkan1,*, Mehmet Turgut2, Yasemin Turan1, Mehmet Dinçer Bilgin3, Sinem Sari4, Mustafa Yilmaz3, Yiğit Uyanikgil5, Mahmut Alp Kiliç3, Derya Tanriöver5, Zehra Seznur Kasar1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(5): 176-182 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.5.176

    Abstract : Background: Development of methods to accelerate nerve regeneration in peripheral nerve damage is important. Electroacupuncture is a new therapeutic method that combines traditional acupuncture with modern electrotherapy. Melatonin has been shown to reduce nerve damage. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine and compare the therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture and melatonin on rat sciatic nerve injury. Methods: A total of 56 adult male Wistar Albino rats were divided into four study groups with 14 animals in each group: intact control (group I), subcutaneous saline (group II), subcutaneous melatonin (group III), and electroacupuncture (group IV). Surgical procedure including unilateral (right) sciatic nerve injury was applied to groups II, III, and IV. Saline and melatonin started immediately after surgery for six weeks, while electroacupuncture was given two weeks after surgery for 3 weeks. Functional and histological assessments were used as outcome measurements. Results: Sciatic nerve damage caused a significant decrease in nerve conduction velocity. Both electroacupuncture treatment and melatonin treatment significantly increased the nerve conduction velocity. Both sciatic functional recovery and histological regeneration were faster in these treatment groups compared to the saline. However, no significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups. Conclusion: Electroacupuncture and melatonin are promising alternative treatment strategies for peripheral nerve damage and can be examined in detail in future studies.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Visible Meridian Phenomena after Acupuncture: A Series of Case Reports

    Nikolay Dimitrov1, Nikola Tomov2, Dimitrinka Atanasova1,3,*, Stiliyan Iliev1, Tatyana Tomova4, Dimitar Sivrev1, Zoya Goranova4

    Abstract : Background: In accordance with the meridian theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), meridian phenomena are observed along the course of a meridian following acupuncture. Their visible manifestations include alterations in the color (reddening or whitening) of the skin as well as papule and vesicle formation. Objectives: The aim of the present work is to report a series of visible meridian phenomena manifested in human subjects and to correlate them to TCM concepts. A total of 1,200 patients, on whom classical acupuncture (with standard single-use needles without electrostimulation or moxibustion) was applied, were carefully observed and documented. Methods: Visible meridian phenomena were photographed using standard photographical equipment and compared to classical acupuncture channels used by TCM. Results: Ten patients (5 male, 5 female) exhibited visible meridian phenomena. Lines, concurring with the meridians, were observed: white lines in seven cases and red lines in three cases. The duration of the two kinds of phenomena was different. White lines remained visible for a shorter period (10-15 min), whereas red lines were seen for up to one hour after needle removal. Conclusion: These observations indicate that visible meridian phenomena following acupuncture are objective, albeit rare, findings that coincide with the acupuncture channels described in the classical works of TCM. The presence of such phenomena provides a new insight into the concept of meridians and explains the development of the idea in its historical context.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation of PC5 and PC6 Acupoints Increases Sympathovagal Balance but Not Oxidative Stress in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Fernando Gomes de Jesus1,2, Alice Pereira Duque1,2, Carole Sant'ana Massolar1, Giselle Pinto de Faria Lopes1, Ana Carolina de Azevedo Carvalho3, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano2,4, Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Junior1,2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(5): 183-192 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.5.183

    Abstract : Background: Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) improves autonomic balance and reduces oxidative stress in subjects with chronic diseases, that decreases the risk of low-grade chronic inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. However, these beneficial effects have never been demonstrated in healthy subjects. Objectives: To evaluate the acute effects of TEAS on autonomic balance and oxidative stress of healthy subjects. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with male healthy subjects (18-30 years old), randomly allocated to control (no intervention; n = 14), placebo (placebo intervention; n = 14) and TEAS group (at PC5 and PC6 acupoints; n = 13). The protocol consisted of accommodation (20 min), intervention (40 min), and recovery (30 min) periods. The acute effects of TEAS on hemodynamics were studied through measurements of heart rate, blood pressure and double product; on the autonomic nervous system by assessing heart rate variability; and on oxidative stress by quantifying reactive oxygen species in saliva samples, collected at the end of each period. Results: TEAS increased heart rate and double-product compared to control and placebo groups (p < 0.01). Moreover, TEAS increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic tonus, increasing the sympathovagal balance compared to the control and placebo groups. However, TEAS exerted no effect on oxidative stress in saliva samples. Conclusion: In healthy subjects, TEAS at PC5 and PC6 acupoints acutely improved autonomic balance, increasing sympathetic and reducing parasympathetic tonus, reflecting little improvement on hemodynamic responses. Whether it could be used as a cardioprotective strategy remains uncertain since it exerted no effect on oxidative stress.

    Abstract
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