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  • Research Article2022-02-28

    Adrenergic Control of Primo Tissue Size in Rats

    Yiming Shen , Yu Jeong Kim , Pan Dong Ryu *
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(1): 25-36 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.1.25

    Abstract : Background: Hyperplastic morphological changes associated with erythropoiesis have been reported in the primo vascular system (PVS) tissue on the surface of abdominal organs in rats with heart failure (HF) or hemolytic anemia (HA). Objectives: Since adrenergic activity is commonly activated in both HF and HA, we investigated whether adrenergic signaling mediates the abovementioned morphological changes. Methods: We compared the effects of adrenolytic treatments (exercise training and 6-hydroxydopamine) on the gross morphology of the PVS tissues isolated from organ surfaces in HF or HA rats. HF and HA were induced by ligating the left coronary artery and injecting phenylhydrazine, respectively. We further compared the effects of norepinephrine and norepinephrine plus α- or β-adrenoceptor blockers. Results: The number of samples per rat, PN size, and proportion of red-colored samples in the PVS tissue increased in the HF and HA rats. These changes were reversed by adrenolytic treatments. Interestingly, 6-hydroxydopamine also reversed phenylhydrazineinduced hemolytic changes in erythrocytes. Subcutaneous administration of norepinephrine (3 mg/kg/d) increased the sampling frequency per rat and the PN size, but these effects were blunted at a higher dose (10 mg/kg/d). Norepinephrine administration had little effect on the proportion of red-colored tissues. Norepinephrine-induced morphological changes were completely blocked by a β-adrenoceptor antagonist (propranolol) but increased slightly by an α-adrenoceptor antagonist (phentolamine). Conclusion: Adrenergic signaling controls hyperplastic changes in the organ surface PVS in rats. These findings may explain the morphological dynamics of the PVS tissues proposed by Bong Han Kim and further clarify the pathophysiological roles of the PVS.

  • Research Article2022-04-30

    Effect of Ear Acupuncture plus Dry Cupping on Activities and Quality of Life in the Adults with Chronic Back Pain: a Randomized Trial

    Caroline de Castro Moura1,*, Erika de Cássia Lopes Chaves2, Denismar Alves Nogueira3, Denise Hollanda Iunes4, Cissa Azevedo1, Hérica Pinheiro Corrêa5, Gabriela Aparecida Pereira6, Higor Magalhães Silvano7, Tamara Goncalves Rezende Macieira8, Tânia Couto Machado Chianca9
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(2): 130-142 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.2.130

    Abstract : Background: Chronic pain is a complex phenomenon that brings physical and emotional impairments negatively impacting people’s quality of life. The adoption of interventions such as ear acupuncture and dry cupping can represent a treatment option for people with chronic back pain.Objectives: To investigate the effects of ear acupuncture combined with dry cupping therapy on the interference of pain with the daily activities and quality of life of adults with chronic back pain.Methods: An open-label, randomized, parallel-group controlled clinical trial. One hundred and ninety-eight adults were randomized into control (CG - ear acupuncture) or experimental (EG - ear acupuncture combined with dry cupping) groups. Interventions were performed in five sessions, once a week, lasting five weeks. Evaluations were performed before the first session, after the last session, and seven days after the second evaluation, using the Brief Pain Inventory to assess the impact of pain on daily activities and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) to assess the quality of life.Results: Between the initial and final sessions, there were significant changes in daily activities , activity, work, mood, relationships, sleep, and in the physical, psychological and social relationships domains for both the control and experimental groups. Improved perception of quality of life and satisfaction with health were observed for the participants in the experimental group.Conclusion: Ear acupuncture combined with dry cupping showed better results in terms of perception of quality of life and satisfaction with health when compared to ear acupuncture by itself.

  • Abstract : Introduction: Is Primo Vascular System (PVS) a paradox? Finding the connection between PVS as a carrier of information and the body’s reactions at the micro and macro levels will be the starting point in understanding the meaning of life as such. Before the past of PVS knowledge: The initial phase of medicine in all cultures is reduced to the transfer of specific energy by special pathways throughout the body! This is the case in China, India, Japan, Korea, Tibet, etc. Undoubtedly, the five articles by B. H. Kim published in the early 1960s are considered to be the past of PVS. Strange present: PVS studies after 2002 are accepted as a present. Most of the articles on the topic are in journals with editors-in-chief originating and/or accepting the achievements of Eastern medicine. Is the science of PVS local since its research is in journals that publish mainly articles on Eastern medicine? Why few of the articles concerning PVS are in Western medicine journals? PVS: after the future or some conclusions and proposals: All substances, objects, biological objects generate a weak electromagnetic radiation typical for each of them which is a passport of the information. PVS has all the data to be the main carrier of information. Information medicine and Quantum Biology can serve as a basis for medicine and biomedical sciences, and it should explain the processes that exist for the change of DNA and organisms in

  • Case Report2022-04-30

    Acupuncture for the Elsberg Syndrome Secondary to Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection: a Case Report and Brief Review

    Lian-Sheng Yang1,*, Kun Zhang1, Dan-Feng Zhou1, Shu-Zhen Zheng1, Jin Zhang2
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(2): 152-156 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.2.152

    Abstract : Elsberg syndrome (ES) is an infectious syndrome presenting with variable signs of acute lumbosacral radiculomyelitis. Its low recognition rate leads to misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment. Thus, some ES patients may develop neurological sequelae. This case described a 74-year-old woman complained of urinary retention, constipation, and sacral numbness after herpes zoster in the perianal area. She was diagnosed with ES and accepted conventional drug treatments and urethral catheterization. The treatment was ineffective; therefore, she accepted electroacupuncture six times and her symptoms completely disappeared, with no recurrence of neurological disorders during 1-year follow-up. This shows that acupuncture is a safe and effective alternative therapy for ES. Nonetheless, further prospective studies are necessary to prove its efficacy in ES.

  • Research Article2022-04-30

    Perioperative Analgesic Efficacy of Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture for Canine Mastectomy Combined with Ovariohysterectomy: a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Carolina de Carvalho Bacarin, Gabriel Montoro Nicácio, Letícia Maria de Lima Cerazo, Luíza Guimarães Peruchi, Renata Navarro Cassu*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(2): 121-129 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.2.121

    Abstract : Background: Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture (YNSA) is a therapy based on the stimulation of points on the scalp and applied to treat different states of pain.Objectives: To investigate the analgesic efficacy of YNSA for dogs undergoing radical unilateral mastectomy with ovariohysterectomy.Methods: Twenty-four dogs were randomly distributed into two treatments (n = 12, per group): bilateral stimulation of basic B, D, and E points (YNSA group) and no application of acupuncture (control group). All dogs were sedated with morphine; anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Fentanyl was intraoperatively administered to control cardiovascular responses to surgical stimulation. Postoperative pain was assessed using an interactive visual analog scale (IVAS) and the short-form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (CMPS-SF). Morphine was administered as rescue analgesia. Data were analyzed using t-tests, Fisher’s exact test, Mann–Whitney U test, and Friedman test (p < 0.05).Results: Intraoperatively, the number of dogs requiring supplemental analgesic and the number of doses of fentanyl were lower in the YNSA group than in the control group (p = 0.027-0.034). The IVAS pain scores recorded from 0.5 h to 1 h post-extubation in the YNSA group were lower than those in the control group (p = 0.021-0.023). Postoperative rescue analgesia and CMPS-SF pain scores did not differ between the groups.Conclusion: YNSA decreases intraoperative fentanyl requirements and provides minimal postoperative analgesic benefits to dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy with ovariohysterectomy.

  • Abstract : The purpose of this paper is to compare the biological research carried out in North Korea with the modern outcomes in the same field, from a historical perspective. In the 1960s, the group led by Bong-Han Kim asserted the existence of a fundamental circulatory system in the human body. Their findings were introduced in five papers as well as in the newspaper Rodong Sinmun. The size of the group, the range of equipment, and their findings expanded gradually, and the final paper on blood cells would be only published one of over sixty papers reported at that time. In the five papers, some unclear and inconsistent contents were found. Meanwhile, in the 2000s, PVS (primo vascular system) researchers have published over one hundred papers to prove the existence of this novel system. Some trends have emerged in approximately sixty papers as follows: The research on the identification of the anatomical and histological characteristics has gradually expanded to encompass the system’s own functioning. Also, new visual results (e.g. before and after dyeing, and its comparison with blood clots) and the exploration of possible medical applications (e.g. cancer metastasis channels or stem cells location) have been proposed. However, it is difficult to identify papers which comprehensively represented the elements claimed by Bong-Han Kim’s group. In addition, papers have been published more in alternative or Oriental medicine journals than in Western biomedical journals. It seems necessary to report more existence of the system in one laboratory animal and in more influential journals.

  • Research Article2022-04-30

    Participation of Potential Transient Receptors in the Antinociceptive Effect of Pharmacopuncture

    Isabella de Paula Ribeiro Argôlo1,*, Julia Risso Parisi2, Josie Resende Torres da Silva1, Marcelo Lourenço da Silva1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(2): 105-113 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.2.105

    Abstract : Background: Despite the widespread clinical use of acupuncture in painful situations, the use of this treatment should be further clarified. Nociception is mediated by the activation of nociceptors, such as transient receptor potentials (TRPs). The family of TRPs includes TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1, which can be stimulated by substances such as capsaicin, menthol, and methyl salicylate, respectively.Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the role of TRPs in antinociception via the administration of agonists of these receptors in the Zusanli acupoint (ST36) in models of inflammatory, acute, and neuropathic pain.Methods: Male Wistar rats were used for this experiment. All rats received a subcutaneous injection of TRP agonists (capsaicin, menthol, or methyl salicylate) in ST36; saline was injected as control. Nociception was evaluated using the electronic mechanical threshold test and tail-flick test before the administration of complete Freund’s adjunct or chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve and after the administration of TRP agonists. Results: Nociception was found to be attenuated after treatment with TRP agonists. The administration of different doses (0.03, 0.3, and 3.0 μg/20 μL) of capsaicin, menthol, and methyl salicylate in the different pain models (neuropathic, inflammatory, and nociceptive) induced antinociception in most of the evaluated time points.Conclusion: Based on the findings, we suggest that the activation of TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1 receptors results in the antinociceptive effect of the stimulation of the ST36 acupoint. Thus, TRP receptors may present a new therapeutic opportunity for the control of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.


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April, 2022
Vol.15 No.2

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2020-06-01

    Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on the Pain Intensity During Insertion of Needle in Patients Undergoing Spinal Anesthesia: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Javad AminiSaman 1, Hasan A. Karimpour 1, Behzad Hemmatpour 2, Saeed Mohammadi 1, Saeed Darvishi 3, Rasool Kawyannejad 4, 5, *

    Abstract : Background and objectives: Needle insertion pain during spinal anesthesia is an unpleasant experience for patients. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the pain intensity during the insertion of spinal needles in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Materials and methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 60 candidates for elective Trans Ureteral Lithotripsy surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The electrodes of the TENS device were placed in the space between L3-L4 and L5-S1 vertebrae. The intensity of pain during insertion of the spinal needle by Visual Analog Scale and the frequency of attempts were recorded. Results: The mean age of the study samples was 34.26 ± 5.07 and 32.8 ± 5.28 in the control and intervention group, respectively. The pain intensity during insertion of spinal needles was less significant in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.001). The number of attempts to insert the spinal needle between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.51). The duration of spinal anesthesia implementation procedure by physician in the intervention group was significantly shorter than that of the control group (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The use of TENS effectively reduced the pain of spinal needle insertion. Considering these beneficial effects, it is suggested that this procedure be used to relive pain in patients with spinal anesthesia.

  • Review Article2021-04-30

    Abstract : Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as cramping pain in the lower abdomen with no pelvic diseases, and it has a high prevalence in many countries. Acupressure is a widely used complementary treatment method for primary dysmenorrhea. This review examined experimental studies to determine the effects of acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea using the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINAHL with the keywords “Acupressure” and “Dysmenorrhea”. There were 2227 records in the databases, and 330 articles were published between 1989 and March 2020. Experimental studies in the English language were reviewed according to the PRISMA guidelines. This review included 28 published studies that were assessed using the Jadad score for quality. The studies were categorized as studies of acupressure at the LR3 point (n = 4), at the SP6 point (n = 9), at auricular points (n = 5), at multiple points (n = 8), and with devices (n = 2). Moreover, studies of self-acupressure (n = 9) were identified. The studies demonstrated that acupressure could reduce menstrual symptoms, the severity and duration of menstrual pain, distress, and anxiety. Furthermore, it helped improve the quality of life and well-being of patients and provide psychological support and self-care. Acupressure is an inexpensive, easy-to-apply, and non-pharmacological treatment and is useful for reducing primary dysmenorrhea, and women can apply this method anywhere by themselves. However, high-quality randomized controlled trials with larger samples are necessary to establish the evidence for acupressure as an effective intervention.

  • Research Article2020-10-01

    Impact of Acupuncture Intervention on the Pain Intensity of Patients Treated at a Tertiary Hospital in Brazil

    Natália F. Valente 1, *, Eliezer de Sousa Cardoso 2, Juliana A. da Silva Rezende 2, Jeferson A. Santos 3

    Abstract : Background: Nowadays, in western societies, acupuncture is widely used over the control of pain and this analgesic approach is still the most studied aspect of acupuncture. Several studies have shown that most patients go through a significant pain decrease soon after the first sessions of acupuncture. Objectives: This research has as a goal the evaluation on the effect of acupuncture treatment regarding the relief of pain intensity of different etiologies, through the visual analog scale. Methods: This research constitutes a retrospective, descriptive study, carried out with 449 patients attended in the Institute Hospital de Base of the Federal District, in Brasilia citye Brazil. Every data was gathered from our own form, with detailed clinical history which included age, marital status, work activity, reason for referral to acupuncture, main and secondary complaints, pain intensity evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), number of sessions completed and drug therapy. All data was organized in the Microsoft Excel and processed in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20.0. Results: Regarding the main complaint, the mean pain decreased from 7.3 (initial VAS) to 3.2 (final VAS), a reduction that meant more than 50% relief in pain intensity. This 50% reduction in initial pain was also observed in secondary complaints (initial VAS = 6.5 and final VAS = 3.1). Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that acupuncture treatment was effective in relieving pain intensity, providing a 50% reduction on the visual analogue scale, in relation to painful complaints of different etiologies.

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  • Research Paper2020-10-01

    The Effects of Auriculotherapy on Shoulder Pain After a Cesarean Section

    Abedini Maryam 1, Aminzadeh Fariba 2, Manshoori Azita 2, Bakhtar Babak 3, Sadeghi Tabandeh 4, *

    Abstract : Background: Postcesarean section shoulder pain caused by constrained upper extremity movement limits the maternal activities of breastfeeding and neonatal care. Objectives: This study aims at investigating the effects of auriculotherapy on shoulder pain after a cesarean section. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 90 candidates for a cesarean section were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly allocated into control and intervention groups by the minimization method. In the intervention group, ear seeds were placed on shoulder and muscle relaxation points from two hours prior to surgery until 24 hours after it. In the control group, ear seeds were placed on placebo points. Shoulder pain was assessed on a numerical pain scale in 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups 1 and 6 hours after surgery. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups 24 hours after surgery and the mean pain score was lower in the intervention group (independent t-test, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of auriculotherapy is recommended for the prevention and alleviation of shoulder pain after a cesarean section.

  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Visible Meridian Phenomena after Acupuncture: A Series of Case Reports

    Nikolay Dimitrov1, Nikola Tomov2, Dimitrinka Atanasova1,3,*, Stiliyan Iliev1, Tatyana Tomova4, Dimitar Sivrev1, Zoya Goranova4

    Abstract : Background: In accordance with the meridian theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), meridian phenomena are observed along the course of a meridian following acupuncture. Their visible manifestations include alterations in the color (reddening or whitening) of the skin as well as papule and vesicle formation. Objectives: The aim of the present work is to report a series of visible meridian phenomena manifested in human subjects and to correlate them to TCM concepts. A total of 1,200 patients, on whom classical acupuncture (with standard single-use needles without electrostimulation or moxibustion) was applied, were carefully observed and documented. Methods: Visible meridian phenomena were photographed using standard photographical equipment and compared to classical acupuncture channels used by TCM. Results: Ten patients (5 male, 5 female) exhibited visible meridian phenomena. Lines, concurring with the meridians, were observed: white lines in seven cases and red lines in three cases. The duration of the two kinds of phenomena was different. White lines remained visible for a shorter period (10-15 min), whereas red lines were seen for up to one hour after needle removal. Conclusion: These observations indicate that visible meridian phenomena following acupuncture are objective, albeit rare, findings that coincide with the acupuncture channels described in the classical works of TCM. The presence of such phenomena provides a new insight into the concept of meridians and explains the development of the idea in its historical context.

  • Research Article2021-12-31

    Mechanisms of Electroacupuncture Pretreatment in Alleviating Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Interactions between the Cerebellar Fastigial Nucleus and Lateral Hypothalamic Area

    Qing Yu1,2, Li-bin Wu1, Fan Zhang1, Xiao-tong Wei1, Pian-pian Chen1, Shuai-ya Wang1, Mei-yi Cai1, Qi Shu1, Liao-yuan Li1, Zi-jian Wu2,3, Rong-lin Cai2,3,*, Ling Hu2,3,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(6): 207-218 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.6.207

    Abstract : Background: Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is an important mechanism of post-myocardial infarction injury and a main cause of death in patients with ischemic heart disease. Electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment is effective for the prevention and treatment of MIRI, but mechanisms mediating the effects of cardiovascular disease EA treatments remain unclear.Objectives: To determine whether the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) are involved in the protective effects of EA stimulation on MIRI. Methods: EA pretreatment was performed for 7 days before the establishment of the MIRI model. ST-segment changes on electrocardiograms were recorded and the Curtis–Walker arrhythmia score was used to evaluate changes in reperfusion injury. Hematoxylin–eosin staining was applied to evaluate the pathological and morphological changes in myocardial tissue. c-fos expression in the LHA and FN was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Glutamic (Glu) and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical method. Results: EA pretreatment reduced ST-segment elevation, arrhythmia scores, and morphological changes in MIRI myocardial cells in rats, and decreased the c-fos protein expression in LHA/FN nuclei. MIRI was associated with an imbalance between GABA and Glu levels, whereas EA pretreatment increased GABA levels and decreased Glu levels in the LHA/FN. Conclusion: FN and LHA are involved in the EA-mediated attenuation of MIRI. Pretreatment with EA plays a protective role in the myocardium by regulating Glu and GABA release in the LHA and FN.

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