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  • Research Article2022-10-31

    Electroacupuncture Promotes Motor Function Recovery in MCAO/R Rats by Activating Astrocyte-Related PI3K/AKT Pathway

    Xiao-Qing Zhang1,2,*,†, Yi-He Wang1,2,†, Li Sun1, Bao-Qiang Dong1,2, Yue-Jiao Sui1,2, Jia-Zi Dong1,2, Yang Han1,2
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(5): 322-332 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.5.322
    Abstract

    Background: Electroacupuncture (EA) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine method to manage various diseases, including cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI).Objectives: We assessed the neuroprotective effects of EA and examined its mechanism in a rat model of the middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO/R). The gait analysis was performed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects. Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays were carried out to determine the molecular mechanisms of EA.Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, right MCAO/R group, and EA group. EA was administered every day (4/20 Hz, 10 min/1 d) at the following acupoints: Baihui (DU20), Yintang (EX-HN3), and Zusanli (ST36). Gait and motor function were analyzed from day 8 onward.Results: The plantar support and balance coordination of MCAO/R rats decreased, and the cellular structure of the ischemic penumbra was unclear. EA improved the gait dynamics of the rats, adjusted the cell structure, further activated astrocytes, and increased the expression and phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/PKB or AKT).Conclusion: EA promoted astrocyte-related effects in the rat model. Our findings suggest that the neuroprotective mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The intervention enhanced brain protection and improved motor functions.

  • Research Article2024-02-29
    JAMS

    Effect of Single Acupuncture Point (Liver 7) on Pain and Range of Motion on Osteoarthritis of Knee

    M. Periyachishreepriya1, P. Kumaresan2,*, A. Naveena3, P. Prabu2, M. Sendhilkumar4
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2024; 17(1): 38-43 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2024.17.1.38
    Abstract

    Background: Osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) is a chronic degenerative musculoskeletal disorder that strongly affects the elderly population and decreases their quality of life. Pain, stiffness, and restricted knee movements are the major characteristic features of OAK. There are no studies available on the effect of the liver 7 (LR 7) acupuncture point on pain and range of motion. Objectives: To study the effectiveness of the LR 7 acupuncture point on pain and range of motion in chronic OAK patients. Methods: Thirty-five subjects aged between 40 and 65 years were recruited from Government Yoga and Naturopathy Medical College, Chennai. Participants were included in the study after they fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The duration of acupuncture was 20 minutes (5 days/week) for 2 weeks. Baseline and post-intervention assessments were performed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the degree of knee flexion and extension was measured using a goniometer. Results: Pre- and post-trial outcomes were compared using paired t-tests. LR 7 acupuncture reduced the WOMAC score from 49 to 30 (p < 0.001), indicating that pain was alleviated. Treatment increased the range of knee flexion from 110 to 115 degrees and reduced knee extension (p < 0.01) from 16 to 9 degrees (p < 0.001). These findings indicate that acupuncture treatment improved the range of knee movement. Conclusion: The present study showed that 10 sessions of LR 7 acupuncture for people with OAK significantly reduced pain and increased range of motion. We conclude that LR 7 acupuncture is an adjuvant therapy for alleviating pain and managing OAK.

  • Guideline and recommendation2023-06-30
    JAMS

    ACURATE: a Guide for Reporting Sham Controls in Trials Using Acupuncture

    Ye-Seul Lee1, Song-Yi Kim2, Hyangsook Lee3, Younbyoung Chae4, Myeong Soo Lee5,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(3): 119-126 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.3.119
    Abstract

    This paper presents the Acupuncture Controls gUideline for Reporting humAn Trials and Experiments (ACURATE) checklist, an extension of The Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT), which is to be used with STandards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) when real and sham acupuncture needles are used in a study. This checklist focuses on a clear depiction of sham needling procedures to enhance replicability and enable a precise appraisal. We encourage researchers to use ACURATE in trials and reviews involving sham acupuncture to assist in the reporting of sham acupuncture procedures and related components.

  • Research Article2024-02-29

    Characteristics of the New Mast Cell-Rich Nodal Structure in the Rat Skin Surface

    Kiho Lee1,2,*, JoonYoung Shin1, Eunhae Cha3, Sungchul Kim1,3,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2024; 17(1): 12-22 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2024.17.1.12
    Abstract

    Background: Acupuncture, practiced for millennia, lacks a clear anatomical definition for acupoints. A prevailing theory suggests that acupoints overlap with skin areas with higher mast cell density. Skin spots stained with intravenously infused Evans blue (EB), indicative of neurogenic inflammation, have recently been posited as acupoints in rats. Objectives: To demonstrate the concordance between EB-reactive skin spots and mast cell–enriched acupoints. Methods: We employed staining and RNA-seq analysis to delineate the morphological characteristics and gene expression profiles of EB-reactive skin spots in rats. Results: EB infusion revealed a novel nodal structure on the rat skin surface, visible to the naked eye, with dimensions of approximately 1 mm in both diameter and height. Around 30 such nodes were identified on one side of the abdominal area, spaced roughly 3 mm apart, excluding the linea alba. RNA-seq analysis indicated that the gene expression patterns within these nodes markedly differed from both non-nodal skin areas and lymph nodes. Histological examination using toluidine blue revealed a significantly greater mast cell count in the nodes than in non-nodal skin regions. Additionally, the nodes stained positively with Alcian blue and Hemacolor, reagents known to mark primo vascular tissues. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that EB-reactive nodes are indeed rich in mast cells. Further research is warranted to establish these skin nodes as surface primo nodes.

  • Research Article2024-02-29

    Effects of Tumor Microenvironment on the Primo Vascular Pattern in the Mouse Model of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Amir Atashi1, Mohammad Kamalabadi-Farahani2,*, Nariman Rezaei Kolarijani3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2024; 17(1): 23-27 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2024.17.1.23
    Abstract

    Background: Tumor survival, promotion, and metastatic functions are regulated by the tumor microenvironment (TME). The primo vascular system (PVS), the third circulatory system in animals, is currently thought to be a highly effective pathway for the spread of cancer cells.Objectives: In the present study, we intend to determine the TME effects on the PVS pattern in breast cancer for the first time. Methods: Heterotopic and orthotopic metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) mice models were created. After 35 days, the skin was retracted, and a 2 cm skin incision was made up and down from the surface of the tumor tissue. In preparation for PVS staining, the dyes (trypan blue and alamarBlue) were injected throughout the tumor tissues. Under a stereomicroscope, PVS in heterotopic and orthotopic tumors was seen. Results: According to our data, there are no appreciable variations in PVS patterns and density between heterotopic and orthotopic animal models. Furthermore, alamarBlue is a good option for tumor PVS staining, as demonstrated by our research. Conclusion: For the first time, our data gave significant new information about the PVS in TNBC. Creating new anti-cancer treatments may be made possible by a better understanding of the biological characteristics of the TME and PVS.

  • Research Article2024-02-29

    Warm Acupuncture Reduces Pain and Inflammation in Rats with Lumbar Disc Herniation Induced by Autologous Nucleus Pulposus Transplantation via Regulating p38MAPK/NF-κB Pathway

    Feng Pan1,2, Feng Zeng1, Yanbei Chen2, Yongren Zheng3, Zhihong Chen2, Xiaoju Zhu2, Mei Fang Yin2, Yiran Huang4,*, Zheng Liu2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2024; 17(1): 28-37 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2024.17.1.28
    Abstract

    Background: Warm acupuncture (WA) has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanism of these effects remain unclear. Objectives: To explore the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of WA and the potential underlying mechanism in male Sprague-Dawley rats with non-compressive lumbar disk herniation (LDH) caused by autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) transplantation. Methods: We used low-frequency (2 Hz) electrical stimulation and WA (40℃) to treat GB30 and BL54 acupoints in rats for 30 mins per day. We monitored the paw withdrawal threshold of rats during the experiment and measured serum cytokine levels using commercial kits. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissue pathology was analyzed via H&E staining. We used qRT-PCR to measure the mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α genes in DRG. Western blot was used to analyze the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, P-p38MAPK, p38MAPK, P-IκBα, IκB α, and NF-κB p65 proteins. Results: WA treatment significantly increased the pain threshold of rats, reduced serum IL-6, PEG2, NO, SP, NP-Y, and MMP-3 levels, and effected histopathological improvements in the DRG in rats. Moreover, WA treatment significantly downregulated the expression levels of inflammation-associated genes (Il-1β, Il-6, and Tnf-α) and proteins (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, P-p38MAPK, P-IκBα, and NF-κB p65) in the DRG of non-compressive LDH rats. Conclusion: WA can alleviate pain and inhibit inflammatory response in rats with non-compressive LDH caused by autologous NP transplantation, and these effects are likely associated with the inhibition of the p38MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Vol.17 No.1
February, 2024

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2022-08-31

    Effects of Lidocaine Injection at Acupuncture Points on Perioperative Analgesia in Cats Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

    Camila Menossi Sueza Lima, Camila Zanetti Segatto, Gustavo Ricci Zanelli, Gabriel Montoro Nicácio, Renata Navarro Cassu*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 255-263 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.255
    Abstract

    Background: Pharmacopuncture is an acupuncture-related technique that has been used to amplify the therapeutic effects of different medications.Objectives: To investigate the analgesic efficacy of a lidocaine injection at acupoints in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.Methods: Thirty cats were randomly distributed into two groups (n = 15, per group). The experimental group received a bilateral administration of lidocaine at the following acupoints: Stomach 36 (ST-36) and Spleen 6 (SP-6) (Lido group). The control group did not receive lidocaine (Control group). All cats were sedated with dexmedetomidine and anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Intraoperatively, fentanyl was given to control cardiovascular responses to surgical stimulation. Postoperative pain was assessed at various time points, up to 24 hours after extubation, using the UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale (MCPS) and Glasgow feline composite measure pain scale (CMPS-Feline). Sedation scores were measured at the same time points. Morphine/meloxicam was administered as rescue analgesia. Data were analyzed using t-tests, Fisher´s exact test, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Friedman test (p < 0.05).Results: Intraoperatively, more cats in the Control group required analgesic supplementation than those in the Lido group, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.65). Postoperative pain, sedation scores, and analgesic requirements did not differ between groups. Rescue analgesia was given to 67% (10/15) of the cats in each group.Conclusion: The administration of lidocaine at ST-36 and SP-6 acupuncture points did not provide significant perioperative analgesic benefits in healthy cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  • Research Article2022-06-30

    Postoperative Acupuncture is as Effective as Preoperative Acupuncture or Meloxicam in Dogs Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy: a Blind Randomized Study

    Ana Carla Zago Basilio Ferro1, Caroline Cannolas2, Juliana Cristianini Reginato2, Stelio Pacca Loureiro Luna1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 181-188 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.181
    Abstract

    Background: Acupuncture has the same analgesic effect as non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and opioids. It is challenging to perform preoperative acupuncture in unmanageable animals, while the residual postoperative anesthetic effect facilitates the performance of acupuncture postoperatively.Objectives: To compare preoperative acupuncture or meloxicam versus postoperative acupuncture for postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy.Methods: This is a horizontal prospective positive control blind randomized experimental study. Thirty-six dogs were randomly divided into three groups: GA (preemptive acupuncture), GPA (postoperative acupuncture), and GM (meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg IV preoperatively). After sedation with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg IM), anesthesia was induced with propofol (5.3 ± 0.3 mg/kg) and maintained with isoflurane/O2. Fentanyl (2 μg/kg, IV) was administered immediately before surgery. Bilateral acupuncture was performed at acupoints Large intestine 4, Spleen 6, and Stomach 36 for 20 minutes, before (GA) or immediately after surgery (GPA). Pain was evaluated by an observer blind to the treatment using the Glasgow scale before and for 24 hours after ovariohysterectomy. Dogs with a score ≥ 6 received rescue analgesia with morphine (0.5 mg/kg IM). Nonparametric data were analyzed by the Kruskal–Wallis test, followed by Dunn’s test and parametric data by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test.Results: Two GA and one GPA dogs received rescue analgesia once. Two GM dogs received rescue analgesia and one of those was treated again twice. There were no differences in the number of dogs receiving rescue analgesia between groups (p = 0.80).Conclusion: Postoperative acupuncture was as effective as preoperative acupuncture or meloxicam in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  • Research Article2022-06-30

    Temperature Characteristics of Traditional Indirect Moxibustion and Electronic Moxibustion

    Dong-Joo Kim1, Hyo-Rim Jo2, Hansol Jang3, Seong-Kyeong Choi2, Chan-Yung Jung4, Won-Suk Sung2, Seung-Deok Lee5, Byung-Wook Lee6, Eun-Jung Kim2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 174-180 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.174
    Abstract

    Background: Electronic moxibustion (EM) was developed to minimize the side effects of traditional moxibustion, such as burns, and to overcome therapeutic compliances such as smoke or smell.Objectives: To investigate distributions and thermal stimulation of EM at various depths using silicon phantom and to compare this methodology to traditional indirect moxibustion (TIM).Methods: A silicon phantom composed of polydimethylsiloxane was heated and immersed in a hot plate containing warm water to set the phantom’s temperature to that of biological tissue. K-type thermocouples were inserted into the phantom at depths of 0, 2, 5, 7, and 10 mm to measure temperature changes with thermal stimulation of EM or TIM placed on top of the phantom.Results: At the surface of the phantom, the peak temperature after applying TIM (55.04 ± 0.92℃ [Δ23.79 ± 0.96℃]) was significantly higher than after EM (43.25 ± 1.95℃ [Δ13.00 ± 2.23℃]), with both interventions reaching the highest temperature after 2 minutes. The temperature increase for TIM was also statistically significant compared to EM when measured at a depth of 2 mm. For the experimental setting with TIM, after reaching peak surface temperature, a rapid decrease was observed at the surface and 2 mm while EM showed a much more gradual decline. There was no significant difference in temperature change between the groups at depths of 5, 7, and 10 mm.Conclusion: TIM resulted in a higher temperature rise compared to EM at the surface and at a 2 mm depth reaching over 50℃, which creates risk of burns. Thermal stimulation with EM had a lower risk of burns with temperature increment not being statistically different from TIM below the depth of 5 mm.

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  • Research Article2022-06-30

    Postoperative Acupuncture is as Effective as Preoperative Acupuncture or Meloxicam in Dogs Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy: a Blind Randomized Study

    Ana Carla Zago Basilio Ferro1, Caroline Cannolas2, Juliana Cristianini Reginato2, Stelio Pacca Loureiro Luna1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 181-188 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.181
    Abstract

    Background: Acupuncture has the same analgesic effect as non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and opioids. It is challenging to perform preoperative acupuncture in unmanageable animals, while the residual postoperative anesthetic effect facilitates the performance of acupuncture postoperatively.Objectives: To compare preoperative acupuncture or meloxicam versus postoperative acupuncture for postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy.Methods: This is a horizontal prospective positive control blind randomized experimental study. Thirty-six dogs were randomly divided into three groups: GA (preemptive acupuncture), GPA (postoperative acupuncture), and GM (meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg IV preoperatively). After sedation with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg IM), anesthesia was induced with propofol (5.3 ± 0.3 mg/kg) and maintained with isoflurane/O2. Fentanyl (2 μg/kg, IV) was administered immediately before surgery. Bilateral acupuncture was performed at acupoints Large intestine 4, Spleen 6, and Stomach 36 for 20 minutes, before (GA) or immediately after surgery (GPA). Pain was evaluated by an observer blind to the treatment using the Glasgow scale before and for 24 hours after ovariohysterectomy. Dogs with a score ≥ 6 received rescue analgesia with morphine (0.5 mg/kg IM). Nonparametric data were analyzed by the Kruskal–Wallis test, followed by Dunn’s test and parametric data by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test.Results: Two GA and one GPA dogs received rescue analgesia once. Two GM dogs received rescue analgesia and one of those was treated again twice. There were no differences in the number of dogs receiving rescue analgesia between groups (p = 0.80).Conclusion: Postoperative acupuncture was as effective as preoperative acupuncture or meloxicam in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  • Research Article2023-02-28
    Abstract

    Background: Blood lipid levels have been reported as novel biomarkers for chronic subjective tinnitus (CST), with their levels being higher in patients with CST.Objectives: This trial aimed to determine the change in lipid profile and tinnitus-related quality of life (TR-QoL) responses to 8-week acupuncture treatment in patients with CST.Methods: Sixty obese patients with CST were randomly assigned to group A (treatment group; n = 30; mean age = 44.10 ± 3.69 years) or group B (sham group; n = 30; mean age = 45.53 ± 3.62 years). Patients in group A (n = 30) received manual stimulation at the TE3, TE5, TE17, TE18, TE19, TE20, TE21, TE22, GB2, GB8, GB20, LI4, LI11, KI3, SP6, ST36, CV4, CV9, and CV12 acupoints through in-site acupuncture needles thrice weekly. Furthermore, the bilateral abdominal ST25 and GB28 acupoints were electrically stimulated through in-site acupuncture needles. Group B (n = 30) received the same acupuncture protocol as group A but the insertion of needles was a sham insertion. Anthropometrics such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), TR-QoL (assessed via tinnitus handicap inventory), blood lipid levels such as high-density lipoprotein (HDLs), low-density lipoprotein (LDLs), cholesterol (C), and triglycerides (TGs), and the visual analogue scale (VAS) score for tinnitus severity, were assessed prospectively.Results: Only group A showed significant within-group improvements. Except for HDLs, BMI, and WC, unpaired between-group comparisons showed significantly greater improvements in other outcome measures of all patients with tinnitus (TR-QoL, LDLs, TGs, C, and VAS) in group A than in group B.Conclusion: Safe acupuncture treatment not only improves anthropometrics and TR-QoL, but also helps resolve hyperlipidemia and reduces the severity of tinnitus in obese patients with CST.

  • Review Article2022-08-31
    Abstract

    Depression is a common illness worldwide. Acupuncture is used as an alternative to non-pharmacological therapy. This study aimed to identify the development and global trends in the study of acupuncture therapy for depression over the past two decades using a bibliometric analysis. Articles published between 2001 and 2020 on acupuncture for depression were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Extracted information included authors, organizations, countries, keywords, and journals. The VOSviewer program was used to visualize the impacts and network hubs of the keywords, authors, and affiliations. Analyses of 871 original and review articles revealed that the number of publications has continually increased over the past 20 years. China has published the maximum number of articles, followed by the United States and South Korea. As for research areas, integrative complementary medicine was most well represented in terms of the number of articles. Co-occurrence analysis of keywords indicated that each five sub-group cluster (including “pain related to depressive symptoms,” “CAM therapies of depression,” “comorbid disease or symptoms of depression,” “clinical trials of depression,” and “mechanism of acupuncture on depression”) has its own impact keyword. The most recent keywords were “protocol” and “systematic review,” whereas early keywords were “acupuncture analgesia” and “St john’s wort.” Co-authorship analysis of authors and organizations revealed 4 influential authors and 2 organizations in the field of acupuncture for depression. The present study provided influential keywords that show comorbid symptoms, treatments, and mechanism. Additionally, it revealed the influential persons or groups related to acupuncture therapy for depression.

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