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  • Research Article2022-08-31

    The Adjunctive Effects of Acupuncture for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: a Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Study

    Dwi Rachma Helianthi1, Atikah C. Barasila1,2, Salim Harris3, Robert Sinto4, Yordan Khaedir2, Irman1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 247-254 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.247

    Abstract : Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that can induce cytokine storm. To this point, no specific drug has been effective for curing COVID-19.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a combination of acupuncture intervention and pharmacologic treatment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate symptoms.Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial of hospitalized COVID-19 patients confirmed by RT-PCR examination with mild-moderate symptoms was conducted from August to September 2020. Participants were assigned to the treatment group (receiving pharmacologic treatment and manual acupuncture intervention) or the control group (receiving only pharmacologic treatment). Laboratory outcomes, including complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), were measured before and after the intervention. For clinical outcomes, we evaluated the duration of the cough symptom.Results: We found that participants in the treatment group had a shorter duration of the cough symptom compared to the control group, and the difference was statistically significant. In the treatment group, we found an increase in the percentage of lymphocyte count and ESR, while in the control group, both parameters were decreased; however, the differences were not statistically significant. There was a decrease in the mean of CRP and ferritin levels in both groups, and the differences were not statistically significant.Conclusion: Our study has shown promising results for the effects of combined treatment of acupuncture and pharmacologic treatment on the duration of the cough symptom in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate symptoms. Further large-scale studies with rigorous design are needed to examine these preliminary results.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2022-10-31

    Acupuncture for Osteoporosis: a Review of Its Clinical and Preclinical Studies

    Yimiao Tian1,†, Lili Wang2,†, Tianshu Xu1, Rui Li1, Ruyuan Zhu1, Beibei Chen1, Hao Zhang1, Bingke Xia1, Yiwen Che3, Dandan Zhao1,*, Dongwei Zhang1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(5): 281-299 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.5.281

    Abstract : Acupuncture has gained growing attention in the management of osteoporosis (OP). However, a comprehensive review has not yet been conducted on the efficacy and challenges of acupuncture in preliminary research and clinical trials. Therefore, an extensive literature search was conducted using electronic databases, including PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed), CNKI (www.cnki.net), and Web of Science, for studies published from the beginning of 2000 to the end of May 2022. Combinations of synonyms for OP, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, clinical trial, preclinical study, and animal experiments were searched. A total of 290 papers were consulted, including 115 reviews, 109 clinical observations, and 66 preclinical studies. There is accumulating evidence to support the beneficial role of acupuncture in preserving bone quality and relieving clinical symptoms based on clinical and preclinical investigations. The top ten most commonly used acupoints are BL23, ST36, BL20, BL11, CV4, GV4, SP 6, KI3, BL18, and GB39. The underlying mechanisms behind the benefits of acupuncture may be linked with the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (adrenal) axis and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin and OPG/RANKL/RANK signaling pathways. In summary, strong evidence may still come from prospective and well-designed clinical trials to shed light on the potential role of acupuncture in preserving bone loss. Future investigations are needed to explore the potential underlying mechanisms, long-term clinical efficacy, and compliance of acupuncture in OP management.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2022-10-31

    Effects of Preoperative Acupuncture on Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting and Plasma Serotonin Values in the Hysterectomy Postoperative Period: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Michelle Catarina Pires, Guilherme Antonio Moreira de Barros*, Lucas Guimarães Ferreira Fonseca, Murilo Moreira Thom, Paulo do Nascimento Junior, Norma Sueli Pinheiro Módolo
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(5): 300-306 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.5.300

    Abstract : Background: Nausea and vomiting are frequent complications of anesthesia in the postoperative period. Acupuncture at the pericardium point 6 (PC6) is known to be effective in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV).Objectives: The objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of acupuncture performed at the PC6 point in the prevention of PONV in women undergoing elective open hysterectomy under general inhalational anesthesia and to assess its association with plasma serotonin levels.Methods: 97 patients undergoing elective open hysterectomy were randomly divided into two groups: acupuncture group (bilateral acupuncture at PC6, n = 49), and a control group (no acupuncture, n = 48). All patients prophylactically received ondansetron and dexamethasone and, as rescue medication, metoclopramide in case of occurrence of PONV. The primary outcome evaluated was occurrence of nausea and vomiting within 24 hours after surgery. Serotonin plasma levels were measured before and after acupuncture prior to anesthesia induction. For the control group, the repeat measurement was performed 30 minutes after admission to the preoperative unit.Results: Acupuncture at PC6 significantly reduced the incidence of nausea (29.2% vs. 6.1%; p > 0.003), and the need of rescue medication (metoclopramide) (33.3% vs. 10.2%; p > 0.006), but not vomiting (4.2 vs. 4.1; p > 0.98). The plasma serotonin levels between control and acupuncture groups did not differ.Conclusion: This study shows that acupuncture at PC6 resulted in a lower incidence of postoperative nausea in patients undergoing hysterectomy.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2022-12-31

    Comparison of the Effects of Myofascial Meridian Stretching Exercises and Acupuncture in Patients with Low Back Pain

    Dilek Eker Büyükşireci1,*, Nesrin Demirsoy1, Setenay Mit2, Ersel Geçioğlu2, İlknur Onurlu1, Zafer Günendi1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(6): 347-355 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.6.347

    Abstract : Background: Acupuncture and myofascial meridians show great anatomical and clinical compatibility.Objectives: We aimed to compare the effects of myofascial meridian stretching exercises and acupuncture in patients with low back pain.Methods: We randomized 81 subjects with acute/subacute low back pain into three groups: an acupuncture (A) group, a myofascial meridian stretching (MMS) group, and a control (C) group. We recorded the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and Roland- Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) scores at baseline and weeks two and six. We evaluated posterior pelvic tilt and transversus abdominis muscle strenghth with a pressure biofeedback unit, back extensor muscle strength by the Sorenson test, and lumbar range of motion (ROM) with an inclinometer. Group A received acupuncture (BL 57 and BL 62 acupoints) and stretching exercises according to the posterior superficial line were applied to the MMS group.Results: Improvements in the NRS score were more prominent in group A than in group C (p = 0.004). The RMQ score improvement between baseline and weeks two and six was more prominent in groups A and MMS (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). The Sorenson test showed significant improvement between the baseline and week two in groups A and MMS (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, respectively). The increase in lumbar ROM measurement in the MMS group between baseline and week two was significantly higher than in groups A and C (p = 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively).Conclusion: Stretching exercises according to the myofascial meridian system and acupuncture contributed to improved symptoms in the first two weeks in patients with acute/subacute low-back pain.

    Abstract
  • Clinical Study Protocol2022-08-31

    A Clinical Trial Protocol to Compare the Effect of Dry Needling and Acupoint Dry Needling on Wrist Flexor Spasticity after Stroke

    Najmeh Nazari1, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari1,2, Soofia Naghdi1,2,*, Pablo Herrero Gallego3, Roshanak Honarpisheh1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 273-278 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.273

    Abstract : Background: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults worldwide, with spasticity after stroke being one of the more common complications. Dry needling (DN) has been demonstrated to decrease spasticity in stroke patients, although its effects on improving function remain unclear. The purpose of this study protocol is to compare the short-term effects of DN versus acupoint DN on wrist flexor spasticity and upper extremity function in patients with stroke.Methods: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial will be conducted to include patients with stroke and upper extremity spasticity and functional disability. Twenty-four patients with stroke will be randomly assigned to either the DN or acupoint DN (DNap) group. These groups will receive three DN sessions during a one-week period of the wrist flexor muscles or at the LI4 & TE5 acupoints, respectively. The primary outcome measure is the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) of spasticity. The secondary outcomes are the Fugl–Meyer Assessment of motor function (FMA) and the goniometry to assess the active and passive range of motion of the wrist. Data will be collected at baseline, immediately after the end of three sessions DN, and at a one-week follow-up visit.Discussion: The results of this comparative study will help to determine the more effective method for reducing spasticity and improving motor function in patients with stroke.

    Abstract
  • Perspective Article2022-12-31
    JAMS

    Sham Acupuncture Is Not Just a Placebo

    Tae-Hun Kim1,*, Myeong Soo Lee2, Hyangsook Lee3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(6): 333-335 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.6.333

    Abstract : Sham acupuncture should have two distinct features: first, it must be morphologically similar to verum acupuncture for blinding purposes, and second, it must not exert physiologically expected effects of verum acupuncture. While several types of sham acupuncture are currently used, there are on-going debates on which sham acupuncture can meet the criteria for being an appropriate control intervention in acupuncture research. In view of this situation, it is unreasonable to regard the use of sham acupuncture in acupuncture research as the same as the use of placebo drugs in drug research. Given the current research evidence that sham acupuncture can exert not only the originally expected non-specific effects but also sham acupuncture-specific effects, it would be misleading to simply regard sham acupuncture as the same as placebo. Therefore, researchers should be cautious when using the term sham acupuncture in clinical investigations.

    Abstract
  • Letter to the Editor2022-10-31
    JAMS

    Warm Cupping in Combination with Standard Therapy in COVID-19: Correspondence

    Rujittika Mungmunpuntipantip1,*, Viroj Wiwanitkit2
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(5): 279-279 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.5.279
  • Research Article2022-10-31

    Effect of Acupressure on Dental Anxiety in Children: a Pilot Study for a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Maria Eliza Consolação Soares1,*, Alessandra de Souza Araújo1, Isabela Carvalhaes Lagares Pinto1, Luiza Silveira Araújo Barbosa1, Maria Cristina Borsatto2, Rodrigo Galo3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(5): 307-313 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.5.307

    Abstract : Background: Anxiety is an important problem in children in dental clinics. Acupressure may be a useful tool to assist in dental procedures in anxious children.Objectives: This pilot study was performed to examine the effects of acupressure on dental anxiety in children undergoing restorative procedures.Methods: Fourteen children aged 7-10 years and with at least one primary molar with caries on the dentine were included in the study. The participants also needed to score at least one point on the modified Venham Picture Test (VPTm) for the determination of anxiety. The children were randomly allocated to two groups: group A — non-documented points for the reduction of anxiety and induction of relaxation; group B — documented points (EX-HN3, Shen Men of auricular acupuncture). The anxiety scale was administered on three occasions: prior to the application of acupressure; immediately after sitting in the dental chair to undergo restorative treatment; and after removal of acupressure at the end of the restorative procedure. Heart rate (HR) was measured when each child sat in the dental chair, after the removal of carious tissue, and after the removal of acupressure.Results: After the procedure, HR (as an indicator of anxiety) was statistically significantly lower in group B than group A (p = 0.02). However, there was no significant difference between the groups regarding anxiety before and during the restorative procedure (VPTm and HR: p > 0.05).Conclusion: The children who received acupressure on documented points for the reduction of anxiety had a significantly lower HR after the restorative procedure. No significant between-group difference was found regarding anxiety measured using a psychometric evaluation (VPTm).

    Abstract
  • Brief Report2022-12-31

    Abstract : A patient with bradycardia and an idioventricular rhythm was observed. According to cardiologists, there is no reliable drug treatment for bradycardia with an idioventricular rhythm; instead, the sole treatment is a pacemaker. In the course of this case, it was shown that acupuncture can restore the heart rhythm from bradycardia to normocardia, and from idioventricular with third-degree atrioventricular node block and an average heart rate of 34 BPM, to normal sinus rhythm with a heart rate of 71 BPM. Additionally, at the end of the treatment, the patient’s number of episodes of ventricular extrasystole decreased 36 times (3289 versus 91 episodes). These results show that research on this technique should be continued.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2022-10-31

    Sedative Effect of Ketamin-Midazolam Administered at Acupoint GV20 Compared to Intramuscular Route in Blue-Fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva): a Pilot Study

    Aricia Noelli Brega Monteiro1,*, Bruno Simões Sérgio Petri2, Haroldo Furuya2, Liliane Milanelo2, Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo3, Ayne Murata Hayashi4
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(5): 314-321 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.5.314

    Abstract : Background: The growth of exotic pet medicine is leading to fast developments in clinical investigations on birds. Acupuncture, specifically pharmacopuncture, offers safe chemical restraint options.Objectives: To investigate pharmacopuncture at acupoint GV20 in blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) using ketamine and midazolam.Methods: Sixteen healthy birds were distributed into four groups (C: intramuscular control; 1/2 C: 1/2 dose intramuscular control; 1/2 GV20: 1/2 dose at acupoint GV20; 1/5 GV20: 1/5 dose at acupoint GV20). Degree of sedation, latency, recuperation time, heart and respiratory rate, and body temperature were measured. Quantitative data were analyzed by a Student’s t-test.Results: The C, 1/2 C, and 1/2 GV20 groups showed the same degree of sedation. The 1/2 GV20 group showed longer latency times (6 ± 2.1) than the 1/2 C (2.5 ± 0.5) group. Sedation time did not differ between the C (28 ± 9.8), 1/2 C (30.5 ± 8.6), and 1/2 GV20 (41 ± 22.24) groups. The 1/2 GV20 group recuperated faster (13.7 ± 3.7) than the C group (64.2 ± 3.5). The C and 1/2 C groups showed tremors and slow and unstable recovery. Two animals in the C group showed mild hypothermia (38°C).Conclusion: The use of 1/2 GV20 was effective and safe to sedate blue-fronted Amazon parrots without side effects, providing easy, stable, and fast recovery. The use of 1/5 GV20 had a shorter sedation time. These findings show that the combination of acupuncture and drugs provides new possibilities for efficient anesthetic protocols with fewer side effects in birds.

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
December, 2022
Vol.15 No.6

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2021-02-28

    Abstract : Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is estimated to be one of the most common diseases affecting the liver because of its high prevalence worldwide. Abnormal lipid profile between NAFLD patients has been reported in several studies. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the lipid profile response to electroacupuncture in NAFLD patients. Methods: A total of 60 female patients with NAFLD were included in the study with ages ranged from (30-55) years old. They were divided equally into two groups, group A received electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at points of; LR14, LR3, ST36, and GB34. And group B received sham acupuncture application in non-acupuncture points. The demographic data and lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL), serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were recorded before and after the study. Results: The study results revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of LDL, TC, TG after 6 weeks of non-interrupted treatment sessions in group A, However HDL showed no significant improvement (p > 0.05). A significant difference was found between posttreatment values of LDL, TC, and TG between both groups. Conclusion: Electroacupuncture can be an effective, simple, and applicable method for the improvement of elevated lipid profiles in NAFLD patients.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-12-31

    Mechanisms of Electroacupuncture Pretreatment in Alleviating Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Interactions between the Cerebellar Fastigial Nucleus and Lateral Hypothalamic Area

    Qing Yu1,2, Li-bin Wu1, Fan Zhang1, Xiao-tong Wei1, Pian-pian Chen1, Shuai-ya Wang1, Mei-yi Cai1, Qi Shu1, Liao-yuan Li1, Zi-jian Wu2,3, Rong-lin Cai2,3,*, Ling Hu2,3,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(6): 207-218 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.6.207

    Abstract : Background: Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is an important mechanism of post-myocardial infarction injury and a main cause of death in patients with ischemic heart disease. Electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment is effective for the prevention and treatment of MIRI, but mechanisms mediating the effects of cardiovascular disease EA treatments remain unclear.Objectives: To determine whether the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) are involved in the protective effects of EA stimulation on MIRI. Methods: EA pretreatment was performed for 7 days before the establishment of the MIRI model. ST-segment changes on electrocardiograms were recorded and the Curtis–Walker arrhythmia score was used to evaluate changes in reperfusion injury. Hematoxylin–eosin staining was applied to evaluate the pathological and morphological changes in myocardial tissue. c-fos expression in the LHA and FN was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Glutamic (Glu) and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical method. Results: EA pretreatment reduced ST-segment elevation, arrhythmia scores, and morphological changes in MIRI myocardial cells in rats, and decreased the c-fos protein expression in LHA/FN nuclei. MIRI was associated with an imbalance between GABA and Glu levels, whereas EA pretreatment increased GABA levels and decreased Glu levels in the LHA/FN. Conclusion: FN and LHA are involved in the EA-mediated attenuation of MIRI. Pretreatment with EA plays a protective role in the myocardium by regulating Glu and GABA release in the LHA and FN.

    Abstract
  • Case Report2022-04-30

    Acupuncture for the Elsberg Syndrome Secondary to Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection: a Case Report and Brief Review

    Lian-Sheng Yang1,*, Kun Zhang1, Dan-Feng Zhou1, Shu-Zhen Zheng1, Jin Zhang2
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(2): 152-156 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.2.152

    Abstract : Elsberg syndrome (ES) is an infectious syndrome presenting with variable signs of acute lumbosacral radiculomyelitis. Its low recognition rate leads to misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment. Thus, some ES patients may develop neurological sequelae. This case described a 74-year-old woman complained of urinary retention, constipation, and sacral numbness after herpes zoster in the perianal area. She was diagnosed with ES and accepted conventional drug treatments and urethral catheterization. The treatment was ineffective; therefore, she accepted electroacupuncture six times and her symptoms completely disappeared, with no recurrence of neurological disorders during 1-year follow-up. This shows that acupuncture is a safe and effective alternative therapy for ES. Nonetheless, further prospective studies are necessary to prove its efficacy in ES.

    Abstract
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  • Research Article2022-08-31

    Effects of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Dogs with Neurological Sequels of Distemper Virus

    Bianca P. C. R. Santos1, Jean G. F. Joaquim2, Renata Navarro Cassu3,*, José C. F. Pantoja1, Stelio Pacca Loureiro Luna1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 238-246 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.238

    Abstract : Background: Acupuncture (AP) has been empirically used to relieve post-canine distemper virus (CDV) infection neurological signs in veterinary clinics.Objectives: This clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of AP combined with electroacupuncture (EA) on neurological function in dogs infected by CDV.Methods: Twenty-four CDV-infected dogs with neurological sequelae were recruited to receive weekly AP/EA sections for 24 weeks. Neurological improvements were assessed before each AP/EA session using a modified scoring system. Data were analyzed using the McNemar test, Friedman test, Fisher's exact test, and Kaplan-Meier curves (p < 0.05).Results: Neurological scores improved from seven to 24 weeks after AP/EA treatment compared with pretreatment scores (p < 0.001). Significant improvements were recorded over time for functional limb recovery, cranial nerve deficits, mental status (p = 0.025 – 0.014), and urinary function (p < 0.001). Myoclonus was improved and entirely reversed in 75% and 25% of the dogs, respectively. At the end of treatment, the proportion of dogs with normal proprioception, posture, hopping (p < 0.001), and superficial pain sensation responses (p = 0.004) was greater than pretreatment values.Conclusion: AP/EA therapy promoted significant neurological recovery in CDV-infected dogs and may be considered within the chronic phase of the disease to improve motor and sensory rehabilitation. However, these results are preliminary and must be confirmed by further investigations.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2022-06-30

    Comparison of an Iranian Traditional Massage (Fateh Method) with Physiotherapy and Acupuncture for Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Parva Namiranian1, Mehrdad Karimi1, Seyede Zahra Emami Razavi2, Ahmad Fateh Garoos1, Mohammad Hossein Ayati1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 163-173 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.163

    Abstract : Background: Low back pain (LBP) is currently a major reason for disability worldwide. Therapeutic massage is one of the most popular non-pharmacological methods for managing chronic LBP (CLBP), and the Fateh method is a massage technique based on Iranian Traditional Medicine.Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the effects of Fateh massage with those of acupuncture and physiotherapy on relieving pain and disability in CLBP.Methods: Eighty-four patients with CLBP were categorized into groups that received Fateh massage, acupuncture, or physiotherapy. Each group included 28 randomly assigned patients who completed 10 sessions of therapy. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and Roland–Morris disability scores were evaluated at baseline, after intervention, and four weeks later. The findings were analyzed with SPSS software.Results: The baseline VAS and Roland–Morris scores of the three study groups did not indicate significant differences (p > 0.05). All three groups showed significant pre-post improvements in both scores (p < 0.05). At the end of the treatment sessions, the three groups showed no significant difference in the reductions in pain intensity and disability score (p > 0.05). Improvements in disability and pain between the first and third time points were significant in all three groups (p < 0.05 for each group). In addition, the results of massage, physiotherapy, and acupuncture groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). No adverse events occurred in the patients.Conclusion: The effects of Fateh massage were comparable to those of acupuncture and physiotherapy in reducing pain and disability in patients with CLBP.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2022-04-30

    Link Between Electroacupuncture Stimulation near the Sympathetic Trunk and Heart Rate Variability

    Kazufumi Takahashi2,3,*, Xiaoming Wang2,3, Daiyu Shinohara1, Kenji Imai2,3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(2): 114-120 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.2.114

    Abstract : Background: The cardiovascular system and airway smooth muscles are regulated by the autonomic nervous system.Objectives: This study investigated the effect of electrical acupuncture stimulation near the cervical sympathetic ganglia on heart rate variability and respiratory function.Methods: This prospective, single-center study at Teikyo Heisei University recruited 24 healthy adults randomly assigned to no-stimulation and electroacupuncture (EA) groups in a crossover trial with a 2-week washout period. After 5 min of rest, a 5-min rest or acupuncture stimulus was delivered, followed by a further 5 min of rest for both groups. EA, at 2-Hz (level of no pain), was delivered near the left cervical ganglia at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra in the EA group.Results: The high-frequency component of the heart rate variability was significantly higher in the EA group than that in the no-stimulation group. Further, there was a significant increase in the high-frequency component of the heart rate in the EA group during the stimulation compared to before and after stimulation. Heart rate decreased significantly during EA compared to before stimulation in the EA group. Regarding respiratory function, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and peak flow significantly increased in the EA group compared with the no-stimulation group, and after stimulation compared with before stimulation.Conclusion: Stimulation with 2-Hz EA near the cervical sympathetic trunk increased parasympathetic nerve activity and reduced heart rate. However, the respiratory function was activated via increased sympathetic nerve activity. Therefore, 2-Hz EA may be effective for autonomic nerve regulation in bronchial stenosis.

    Abstract
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