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  • Letter to the Editor2022-10-31

    Author’s reply

    Mehrdad Karimi1, Arman Zargaran2, Reihane Alipour1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(5): 279-280 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.5.279
  • Research Article2022-10-31

    Electroacupuncture Promotes Motor Function Recovery in MCAO/R Rats by Activating Astrocyte-Related PI3K/AKT Pathway

    Xiao-Qing Zhang1,2,*,†, Yi-He Wang1,2,†, Li Sun1, Bao-Qiang Dong1,2, Yue-Jiao Sui1,2, Jia-Zi Dong1,2, Yang Han1,2
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(5): 322-332 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.5.322

    Background: Electroacupuncture (EA) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine method to manage various diseases, including cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI).Objectives: We assessed the neuroprotective effects of EA and examined its mechanism in a rat model of the middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO/R). The gait analysis was performed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects. Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays were carried out to determine the molecular mechanisms of EA.Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, right MCAO/R group, and EA group. EA was administered every day (4/20 Hz, 10 min/1 d) at the following acupoints: Baihui (DU20), Yintang (EX-HN3), and Zusanli (ST36). Gait and motor function were analyzed from day 8 onward.Results: The plantar support and balance coordination of MCAO/R rats decreased, and the cellular structure of the ischemic penumbra was unclear. EA improved the gait dynamics of the rats, adjusted the cell structure, further activated astrocytes, and increased the expression and phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/PKB or AKT).Conclusion: EA promoted astrocyte-related effects in the rat model. Our findings suggest that the neuroprotective mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The intervention enhanced brain protection and improved motor functions.

  • Research Article2024-02-29

    Effects of Tumor Microenvironment on the Primo Vascular Pattern in the Mouse Model of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Amir Atashi1, Mohammad Kamalabadi-Farahani2,*, Nariman Rezaei Kolarijani3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2024; 17(1): 23-27 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2024.17.1.23

    Background: Tumor survival, promotion, and metastatic functions are regulated by the tumor microenvironment (TME). The primo vascular system (PVS), the third circulatory system in animals, is currently thought to be a highly effective pathway for the spread of cancer cells.Objectives: In the present study, we intend to determine the TME effects on the PVS pattern in breast cancer for the first time. Methods: Heterotopic and orthotopic metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) mice models were created. After 35 days, the skin was retracted, and a 2 cm skin incision was made up and down from the surface of the tumor tissue. In preparation for PVS staining, the dyes (trypan blue and alamarBlue) were injected throughout the tumor tissues. Under a stereomicroscope, PVS in heterotopic and orthotopic tumors was seen. Results: According to our data, there are no appreciable variations in PVS patterns and density between heterotopic and orthotopic animal models. Furthermore, alamarBlue is a good option for tumor PVS staining, as demonstrated by our research. Conclusion: For the first time, our data gave significant new information about the PVS in TNBC. Creating new anti-cancer treatments may be made possible by a better understanding of the biological characteristics of the TME and PVS.

  • Research Article2024-02-29

    Warm Acupuncture Reduces Pain and Inflammation in Rats with Lumbar Disc Herniation Induced by Autologous Nucleus Pulposus Transplantation via Regulating p38MAPK/NF-κB Pathway

    Feng Pan1,2, Feng Zeng1, Yanbei Chen2, Yongren Zheng3, Zhihong Chen2, Xiaoju Zhu2, Mei Fang Yin2, Yiran Huang4,*, Zheng Liu2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2024; 17(1): 28-37 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2024.17.1.28

    Background: Warm acupuncture (WA) has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying mechanism of these effects remain unclear. Objectives: To explore the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of WA and the potential underlying mechanism in male Sprague-Dawley rats with non-compressive lumbar disk herniation (LDH) caused by autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) transplantation. Methods: We used low-frequency (2 Hz) electrical stimulation and WA (40℃) to treat GB30 and BL54 acupoints in rats for 30 mins per day. We monitored the paw withdrawal threshold of rats during the experiment and measured serum cytokine levels using commercial kits. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) tissue pathology was analyzed via H&E staining. We used qRT-PCR to measure the mRNA expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α genes in DRG. Western blot was used to analyze the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, P-p38MAPK, p38MAPK, P-IκBα, IκB α, and NF-κB p65 proteins. Results: WA treatment significantly increased the pain threshold of rats, reduced serum IL-6, PEG2, NO, SP, NP-Y, and MMP-3 levels, and effected histopathological improvements in the DRG in rats. Moreover, WA treatment significantly downregulated the expression levels of inflammation-associated genes (Il-1β, Il-6, and Tnf-α) and proteins (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, P-p38MAPK, P-IκBα, and NF-κB p65) in the DRG of non-compressive LDH rats. Conclusion: WA can alleviate pain and inhibit inflammatory response in rats with non-compressive LDH caused by autologous NP transplantation, and these effects are likely associated with the inhibition of the p38MAPK/NF-κB pathway.

  • Research Article2024-04-30

    Efficacy of Acupuncture on Pain Severity and Frequency of Calf Cramps in Dialysis Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Leila Sadat Mohamadi Jahromi1, Maryam Vejdanpak2, Rezvan Ghaderpanah3, Seyed Hassan Sadrian3, Alireza Dabbaghmanesh4, Sharareh Roshanzamir5,*, Mohammadhossein Dabbaghmanesh6
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2024; 17(2): 47-54 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2024.17.2.47

    Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease, as a common disorder, usually necessitate the implementation of hemodialysis. Muscle cramps are one of the most disabling complications affecting their quality of life.Objectives: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture as a safe alternative to the management of pain severity and frequency of calf cramps in dialysis patients compared to a control group.Methods: Fifty dialysis patients experiencing calf cramps who met the eligibility criteria were randomly allocated to two groups. Group A received routine management, including analgesic consumption, stretching exercises, and nine acupuncture sessions, including acupoints BL57, GV26, CV4, CV6, LV3, KI 1, LU7, LU9, and GB34. Group B underwent sham acupuncture therapy at locations other than the primary acupoints in addition to following the specified routine management. The pain severity was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS), and the daily frequency of calf cramps was evaluated at baseline and one month after treatment completion.Results: VAS scores and the frequency of calf cramps were improved one month after treatment completion in both groups. However, the improvement was significant in group A (p < 0.001), while it was not statistically significant in group B (p > 0.05). There was also a significant difference between both groups regarding reducing pain and the frequency of calf cramps, which showed the efficacy of acupuncture compared to the control group (p < 0.0001).Conclusion: Acupuncture can decrease pain and frequency of calf cramps in dialysis patients.

  • Research Article2024-04-30

    Effectiveness and Safety of Meridian Activation Remedy System for Alleviating Motor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease: an Observational Study

    InWoo Choi1, Sangsoo Park2, Seung Hyun Lee3, Jeong-Woo Seo4, In-Chan Seol1, Yoon-Sik Kim1, Miso S. Park2,*, Horyong Yoo1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2024; 17(2): 55-68 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2024.17.2.55

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) lacks disease-modifying drugs or sustainable interventions, creating an unmet treatment need. Investigating complementary and alternative medicines aims to improve PD patients’ quality of life by alleviating symptoms and delaying the course of the disease.Objectives: In this single-center, prospective, observational, single-arm study, we aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture combined with exercise therapy and the Meridian Activation Remedy System (MARS).Methods: From March to October 2021, 13 PD patients with Hoehn and Yahr stages 1 to 3 were recruited. For 8 weeks, MARS intervention was carried out twice a week. T-statistics were used to evaluate functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and GAITRite outcomes. All of the remaining outcome variables were evaluated using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.Results: The MARS intervention significantly reduced PD patients’ Movement Disorder Society-Sponsored Revision of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDSUPDRS) Part III score (from 20.0 ± 11.8 to 8.8 ± 5.5, p = 0.003), 10-meter walk test speed (from 9.5 ± 1.8 to 8.7 ± 1.3 seconds, p = 0.040), and timed up and go time (from 9.8 ± 1.8 to 8.9 ± 1.4 seconds, p = 0.040). Moreover, the MDS-UPDRS Part II, fNIRS hemodynamics, 360-degree turn test, fall efficacy scale, and Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire 39 scores improved but not significantly. All participants completed the 8-week intervention without any adverse reactions.Conclusion: An 8-week MARS intervention improved motor symptoms in PD patients. In particular, improvements in UPDRS Part III scores exhibited large clinically important differences. The findings are encouraging, and a randomized controlled trial will be conducted to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of MARS intervention.

  • Systematic Review Protocol2024-04-30

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis causes physical dysfunction, and its prevalence increases with age. Although clinical studies examined acupoint catgut embedding in patients with knee osteoarthritis, no systematic reviews or meta-analyses have been conducted to date. We aim to comprehensively review the effects of acupoint catgut embedding on knee osteoarthritis.Methods: Eleven databases will be searched from inception to August 1, 2023, without language limitations. Additionally, two registration platforms—ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry—will be searched for ongoing trials. The primary outcomes will be assessed using the Visual Analog Scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Secondary outcomes include the total effective rate, Lysholm Score, and adverse effects. Two reviewers will independently select the studies, extract data, and evaluate the risk of bias and the quality of evidence.Discussion: This systematic review will provide evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of acupoint catgut embedding in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  • Research Article2024-04-30

    Effects of Frequency-Controlled Ear Acupuncture on COVID-19- related Refractory Olfactory Dysfunction: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Alireza Mohebbi1,*, Seyed Hamidreza Bagheri1, Eiman Raziabadi1, Ashkan Shafiei1, Maryam Roomiani1, Maryam Arab1, Ladan Dehdari2
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2024; 17(2): 69-75 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2024.17.2.69

    Background: Olfactory dysfunction is a common COVID-19 symptom, posing treatment challenges.Objectives: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of frequency-controlled ear acupuncture in treating COVID-19-related olfactory dysfunction.Methods: A randomized, participant-blind clinical trial occurred at the Rasoul Akram Hospital (IRCT20210311050671N1). Forty patients were recruited, and 20 patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The primary outcome was the improvement in patients’ quality of smell. The olfactory dysfunction was confirmed using the Smell Identification Test. The intervention group received two sessions of acupuncture treatment according to auricular frequency treatment, with a one-week interval, while the control group received an equal number of switched-off laser sessions. Both groups were instructed to use nasal betamethasone drops. The patients were asked to rank their ability to smell before and after each intervention on a 10-point visual analog scale. Secondary outcomes were related side effects.Results: Covariance analysis revealed a significant difference in adjusted scores between the groups (F [37, 1] = 37.463; p = 0.000, Eta2 = 0.503). The smell quality improved from 2.80 ± 1.76 to 5.22 ± 3.40 after treatment in the intervention group (p = 0.007), while the control group showed no significant change (p = 0.184). Three patients reported short and transient side effects, such as nausea, headache, and dizziness, in the first hours after the intervention.Conclusion: Frequency-controlled ear acupuncture is an effective option for treating COVID-19-related olfactory dysfunction. The study highlights the potential of alternative therapies in the treatment of this condition, and further research is warranted to investigate its long-term effects.

  • Clinical Study Protocol2024-06-30

    The Effect of Ankle Muscles Dry Needling on Brain Activity Map Based on fMRI: a Study Protocol for Randomized Controlled Trial

    Roshanak Honarpishe1, Soofia Naghdi1,*, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari1,2, Jan Dommerholt3, Marzieh Hassanabadi4
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2024; 17(3): 94-99 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2024.17.3.94

    Importance: Neuromodulation may be one of the underlying mechanisms of dry needling (DN); however, the mechanism has not yet been fully clarified.Objective: This randomized controlled trial is designed to evaluate DN stimulation of the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus muscles in chronic ankle instability (CAI) and healthy subjects, employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Design: Clinical study protocol, SPIRIT compliant.Setting: Brain Mapping Laboratory.Population: A total of thirty participants aged between 18 and 40 years old will be included in this study. Twenty healthy participants will be randomized into 2 groups (real DN and sham DN). Ten patients with CAI will also be recruited to the third group and receive only real DN for comparison.Exposures: Real and sham DN.Main Outcomes and Measures: The voxel count, coordinates of peak activation, and peak intensity will be obtained as primary outcomes to report brain map activation. Measurements will be taken before, during, and after DN treatment. The strength of the ankle dorsiflexors, active dorsiflexion range of motion, and McGill pain questionnaire short-form will be used as secondary outcome measures.Results: The results from this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated as presentations at national and international congresses.Conclusion: This trial will explore brain responses to real and sham DN in healthy participants and to real DN in CAI patients. Overall, our results will provide preliminary evidence of the neural mechanism of DN.

Journal Info

Vol.17 No.3
June, 2024

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2023-06-30

    Effect of Acupressure at PC6 on Nausea and Vomiting During Pregnancy: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Melike Pündük Yılmaz1,*, Saadet Yazıcı2, İsmail Yılmaz3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(3): 89-94 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.3.89

    Background: Nausea and vomiting are among the most common medical problems during pregnancy, affecting 80% of mothers.Objectives: This study was conducted as a randomized controlled experimental study to determine the effect of acupressure applied by a wristband to the pericardium 6 (PC6) point on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.Methods: The study population consisted of 74 pregnant women between 6-14 weeks of gestation who were experiencing nausea and vomiting. The study data was collected with personal information from the Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis Scale (PUQE). Experimental and control groups were selected by a simple random method. The experimental group wore acupressure wristbands for one week, while the control group did not use any method to alleviate nausea and vomiting. One week later, the PUQE scale was applied to both groups.Results: The acupressure wristbands decreased the nausea and vomiting scores of the pregnant women in the experimental group without statistical significance but did not change the nausea and vomiting scores of the pregnant women in the control group.Conclusion: Acupressure wristbands can be used to prevent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.

  • Research Article2023-10-31

    The Public Perceptions on Wet Cupping Therapy (Hijama) in Saudi Arabia

    Suhaib Ibrahim Alkhamaiseh1,2,*, Amjad H. Bazzari3, Abdel Hadi Al jafari1, Firas H. Bazzari1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(5): 176-182 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.5.176

    Background: Wet cupping (Hijama), a form of alternative medicine, is widely practiced in Middle Eastern countries, especially Saudi Arabia. Although considerable effort has been put into increasing public awareness about the safe and proper practice of wet cupping, studies on the attitudes, knowledge, and awareness levels of the Saudi Arabian public are lacking.Objectives: This study evaluated public attitudes toward the effectiveness, safety, and expected standards of practicing wet cupping. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire and involved 909 complete responses. The respondents were Saudi adults with a mean age of 30.43 ± 11.4 years (males: 42.1%, females: 57.9%). Results: The study revealed that most participants believed that although wet cupping is a beneficial (84.6%), well-known form of alternative medicine (82.4%) without harmful side effects (63.9%), it is not suitable for treating all diseases (72.3%) or everyone (66.8%). Most participants prefer wet cupping to be done at specialized centers (84.6%) by practitioners with confirmed qualifications (88.6%) using valid and sterile instruments (88.9%). The main demographic factor influencing participant responses was age, which was associated with more positive perceptions. Female, single, college-educated, and middle-aged respondents had more cautious attitudes. Conclusion: Our results indicate that Saudis support the use of wet cupping as an alternative medicine for select diseases and that individuals have adequate awareness of the practice’s safety standards to avoid potential risks.

  • Perspective Article2022-12-31

    Sham Acupuncture Is Not Just a Placebo

    Tae-Hun Kim1,*, Myeong Soo Lee2, Hyangsook Lee3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(6): 333-335 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.6.333

    Sham acupuncture should have two distinct features: first, it must be morphologically similar to verum acupuncture for blinding purposes, and second, it must not exert physiologically expected effects of verum acupuncture. While several types of sham acupuncture are currently used, there are on-going debates on which sham acupuncture can meet the criteria for being an appropriate control intervention in acupuncture research. In view of this situation, it is unreasonable to regard the use of sham acupuncture in acupuncture research as the same as the use of placebo drugs in drug research. Given the current research evidence that sham acupuncture can exert not only the originally expected non-specific effects but also sham acupuncture-specific effects, it would be misleading to simply regard sham acupuncture as the same as placebo. Therefore, researchers should be cautious when using the term sham acupuncture in clinical investigations.

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  • Clinical Study Protocol2022-08-31

    A Clinical Trial Protocol to Compare the Effect of Dry Needling and Acupoint Dry Needling on Wrist Flexor Spasticity after Stroke

    Najmeh Nazari1, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari1,2, Soofia Naghdi1,2,*, Pablo Herrero Gallego3, Roshanak Honarpisheh1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 273-278 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.273

    Background: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults worldwide, with spasticity after stroke being one of the more common complications. Dry needling (DN) has been demonstrated to decrease spasticity in stroke patients, although its effects on improving function remain unclear. The purpose of this study protocol is to compare the short-term effects of DN versus acupoint DN on wrist flexor spasticity and upper extremity function in patients with stroke.Methods: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial will be conducted to include patients with stroke and upper extremity spasticity and functional disability. Twenty-four patients with stroke will be randomly assigned to either the DN or acupoint DN (DNap) group. These groups will receive three DN sessions during a one-week period of the wrist flexor muscles or at the LI4 & TE5 acupoints, respectively. The primary outcome measure is the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) of spasticity. The secondary outcomes are the Fugl–Meyer Assessment of motor function (FMA) and the goniometry to assess the active and passive range of motion of the wrist. Data will be collected at baseline, immediately after the end of three sessions DN, and at a one-week follow-up visit.Discussion: The results of this comparative study will help to determine the more effective method for reducing spasticity and improving motor function in patients with stroke.

  • Research Article2022-08-31

    The Adjunctive Effects of Acupuncture for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: a Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Study

    Dwi Rachma Helianthi1, Atikah C. Barasila1,2, Salim Harris3, Robert Sinto4, Yordan Khaedir2, Irman1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 247-254 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.247

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that can induce cytokine storm. To this point, no specific drug has been effective for curing COVID-19.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a combination of acupuncture intervention and pharmacologic treatment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate symptoms.Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial of hospitalized COVID-19 patients confirmed by RT-PCR examination with mild-moderate symptoms was conducted from August to September 2020. Participants were assigned to the treatment group (receiving pharmacologic treatment and manual acupuncture intervention) or the control group (receiving only pharmacologic treatment). Laboratory outcomes, including complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), were measured before and after the intervention. For clinical outcomes, we evaluated the duration of the cough symptom.Results: We found that participants in the treatment group had a shorter duration of the cough symptom compared to the control group, and the difference was statistically significant. In the treatment group, we found an increase in the percentage of lymphocyte count and ESR, while in the control group, both parameters were decreased; however, the differences were not statistically significant. There was a decrease in the mean of CRP and ferritin levels in both groups, and the differences were not statistically significant.Conclusion: Our study has shown promising results for the effects of combined treatment of acupuncture and pharmacologic treatment on the duration of the cough symptom in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate symptoms. Further large-scale studies with rigorous design are needed to examine these preliminary results.

  • Research Article2023-04-30

    The Effects of Manual Acupuncture on Mitochondrial Fusion and Fission Gene Expression in Rat Spleen

    Yu-Mi Lee1,†, Dong-Hee Choi2,†, Jeong-Hye Park2, Min-Woo Cheon3, Jae Gwan Kim1, Jeong-Sang Kim2, Taejin Choi4, Hye-Ran Kim2, Daehwan Youn2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(2): 49-55 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.2.49

    Background: A significant amount of research has been conducted to establish the validity of acupuncture, and it has been demonstrated through animal disease model studies that acupuncture influences mitochondrial changes. However, to more accurately examine the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment effectiveness in pathological models, it is crucial to investigate changes in disease-free animals. Among various hypotheses regarding the effects of acupuncture on the body, we focused on the result that acupuncture stimulation is related to mitochondria.Objectives: We examined the effects of acupuncture mitochondrial fission and fusionrelated mediators in disease-free Sprague Dawley (SD) rats' spleen meridian acupoints.Methods: SD rats were divided into control, SP1, SP2, SP3, SP5, and SP9 acupuncture groups. Acupuncture was performed at each point for 10 minutes daily for four days. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and fission protein 1 (Fis1) levels were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), while dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), optic atrophy-1 (OPA1), mitofusin-1 (MFN1), and mitofusin-2 (MFN2) levels were assessed via western blotting. Mitochondria protein concentrations and NADH dehydrogenase activity in spleen tissues were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: PGC-1α expression decreased in the SP1 (p < 0.01), SP5 (p < 0.05), and SP9 (p < 0.05) groups, while Fis1 expression increased in the SP1 (p < 0.01), SP5 (p < 0.01), and SP9 (p < 0.05) groups. DRP1, OPA1, MFN1, and MFN2 levels exhibited no significant changes. Mitochondrial protein concentrations decreased in the SP2 (p < 0.01), SP3 (p < 0.01), SP5 (p < 0.01), and SP9 (p < 0.01) groups, while NADH dehydrogenase activity decreased in the SP2 (p < 0.05) and SP9 (p < 0.05) groups.Conclusion: Acupuncture at the SP9 acupoint influenced the mitochondrial fission pathway by modulating PGC-1α and Fis1 mediators in the rat spleen under non-disease conditions.

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