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  • Obituary2022-02-28

    Obituary: Professor Kwang-Sup Soh (1945-2021)

    Ku Youn Baik1, Hak Soo Shin2, Pan-Dong Ryu3,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(1): 1-3 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.1.1
  • Research Article2022-02-28

    Adrenergic Control of Primo Tissue Size in Rats

    Yiming Shen , Yu Jeong Kim , Pan Dong Ryu *
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(1): 25-36 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.1.25

    Abstract : Background: Hyperplastic morphological changes associated with erythropoiesis have been reported in the primo vascular system (PVS) tissue on the surface of abdominal organs in rats with heart failure (HF) or hemolytic anemia (HA). Objectives: Since adrenergic activity is commonly activated in both HF and HA, we investigated whether adrenergic signaling mediates the abovementioned morphological changes. Methods: We compared the effects of adrenolytic treatments (exercise training and 6-hydroxydopamine) on the gross morphology of the PVS tissues isolated from organ surfaces in HF or HA rats. HF and HA were induced by ligating the left coronary artery and injecting phenylhydrazine, respectively. We further compared the effects of norepinephrine and norepinephrine plus α- or β-adrenoceptor blockers. Results: The number of samples per rat, PN size, and proportion of red-colored samples in the PVS tissue increased in the HF and HA rats. These changes were reversed by adrenolytic treatments. Interestingly, 6-hydroxydopamine also reversed phenylhydrazineinduced hemolytic changes in erythrocytes. Subcutaneous administration of norepinephrine (3 mg/kg/d) increased the sampling frequency per rat and the PN size, but these effects were blunted at a higher dose (10 mg/kg/d). Norepinephrine administration had little effect on the proportion of red-colored tissues. Norepinephrine-induced morphological changes were completely blocked by a β-adrenoceptor antagonist (propranolol) but increased slightly by an α-adrenoceptor antagonist (phentolamine). Conclusion: Adrenergic signaling controls hyperplastic changes in the organ surface PVS in rats. These findings may explain the morphological dynamics of the PVS tissues proposed by Bong Han Kim and further clarify the pathophysiological roles of the PVS.

  • Case Report2022-06-30

    Warm Cupping of the Posterior Thorax in Combination with Standard Conventional Therapy for ARDS in COVID-19 Patients in ICU: a Case Series

    Mehrdad Karimi1, Amir Hooman Kazemi1,2, Asma Asadi3, Azadeh Zarei1, Arman Zargaran4, Seyed Ali Al-hadi Moravej5, Seyede Ferdos Jazayeri5, Omid Nabavian6, Seyedeh Aida Ahmadi6, Reihane Alipour1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 194-200 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.194

    Abstract : Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is commonly found in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As a non-pharmacological treatment of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), cupping has been clinically used for respiratory symptoms. We sequentially identified a series of patients with COVID-19 with ARDS who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Warm cupping of the posterior thorax was performed for seven days. We collected longitudinal severity scores on cough, breathlessness, chest tightness, type of oxygen therapy, and oxygen saturation (SpO2). We hereby report the changes in the severity scores in a series of eight patients who received 21 sessions of cupping in addition to conventional treatments. All patients reported improvement in symptom scores that was matched by an increase in SpO2 by as much as 3.16%. All patients were discharged and did not require the use of a mechanical ventilator. The results suggest that combining cupping with conventional treatment may provide a good prognosis for patients with COVID-19 with ARDS.

  • Review Article2022-06-30

    Exploring Acupuncture Actions in the Body and Brain

    In-Seon Lee, Younbyoung Chae*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 157-162 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.157

    Abstract : Acupuncture’s actions have been explained by biomedical research. However, the meridian system used in acupuncture needs further clarification. This review describes how acupuncture affects the body and brain. From the perspective of traditional East Asian medicine, the meridian system is closely connected with acupuncture’s treatment effects. In the body, the indications of acupoints, primarily established based on the meridian system, have spatial symptom patterns. Spatial patterns of acupoint indications are distant from the stimulated sites and strongly associated with the corresponding meridian’s route. Understanding how acupuncture works based on the original meridian system is important. From a neuroscience perspective, an acupuncture-induced sensation originates from the bottom-up action of simple needling in the peripheral receptor and the reciprocal interaction with top-down brain modulation. In the brain, enhanced bodily attention triggered by acupuncture stimulation can activate the salience network and deactivate the default mode network regardless of the actual stimulation. The application of data science technology to acupuncture research may provide new tools to uncover the principles of acupoint selection and enhance the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment in various diseases.

  • Research Article2022-06-30

    Postoperative Acupuncture is as Effective as Preoperative Acupuncture or Meloxicam in Dogs Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy: a Blind Randomized Study

    Ana Carla Zago Basilio Ferro1, Caroline Cannolas2, Juliana Cristianini Reginato2, Stelio Pacca Loureiro Luna1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 181-188 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.181

    Abstract : Background: Acupuncture has the same analgesic effect as non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and opioids. It is challenging to perform preoperative acupuncture in unmanageable animals, while the residual postoperative anesthetic effect facilitates the performance of acupuncture postoperatively.Objectives: To compare preoperative acupuncture or meloxicam versus postoperative acupuncture for postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy.Methods: This is a horizontal prospective positive control blind randomized experimental study. Thirty-six dogs were randomly divided into three groups: GA (preemptive acupuncture), GPA (postoperative acupuncture), and GM (meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg IV preoperatively). After sedation with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg IM), anesthesia was induced with propofol (5.3 ± 0.3 mg/kg) and maintained with isoflurane/O2. Fentanyl (2 μg/kg, IV) was administered immediately before surgery. Bilateral acupuncture was performed at acupoints Large intestine 4, Spleen 6, and Stomach 36 for 20 minutes, before (GA) or immediately after surgery (GPA). Pain was evaluated by an observer blind to the treatment using the Glasgow scale before and for 24 hours after ovariohysterectomy. Dogs with a score ≥ 6 received rescue analgesia with morphine (0.5 mg/kg IM). Nonparametric data were analyzed by the Kruskal–Wallis test, followed by Dunn’s test and parametric data by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test.Results: Two GA and one GPA dogs received rescue analgesia once. Two GM dogs received rescue analgesia and one of those was treated again twice. There were no differences in the number of dogs receiving rescue analgesia between groups (p = 0.80).Conclusion: Postoperative acupuncture was as effective as preoperative acupuncture or meloxicam in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  • Research Article2022-06-30

    Temperature Characteristics of Traditional Indirect Moxibustion and Electronic Moxibustion

    Dong-Joo Kim1, Hyo-Rim Jo2, Hansol Jang3, Seong-Kyeong Choi2, Chan-Yung Jung4, Won-Suk Sung2, Seung-Deok Lee5, Byung-Wook Lee6, Eun-Jung Kim2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 174-180 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.174

    Abstract : Background: Electronic moxibustion (EM) was developed to minimize the side effects of traditional moxibustion, such as burns, and to overcome therapeutic compliances such as smoke or smell.Objectives: To investigate distributions and thermal stimulation of EM at various depths using silicon phantom and to compare this methodology to traditional indirect moxibustion (TIM).Methods: A silicon phantom composed of polydimethylsiloxane was heated and immersed in a hot plate containing warm water to set the phantom’s temperature to that of biological tissue. K-type thermocouples were inserted into the phantom at depths of 0, 2, 5, 7, and 10 mm to measure temperature changes with thermal stimulation of EM or TIM placed on top of the phantom.Results: At the surface of the phantom, the peak temperature after applying TIM (55.04 ± 0.92℃ [Δ23.79 ± 0.96℃]) was significantly higher than after EM (43.25 ± 1.95℃ [Δ13.00 ± 2.23℃]), with both interventions reaching the highest temperature after 2 minutes. The temperature increase for TIM was also statistically significant compared to EM when measured at a depth of 2 mm. For the experimental setting with TIM, after reaching peak surface temperature, a rapid decrease was observed at the surface and 2 mm while EM showed a much more gradual decline. There was no significant difference in temperature change between the groups at depths of 5, 7, and 10 mm.Conclusion: TIM resulted in a higher temperature rise compared to EM at the surface and at a 2 mm depth reaching over 50℃, which creates risk of burns. Thermal stimulation with EM had a lower risk of burns with temperature increment not being statistically different from TIM below the depth of 5 mm.

  • Research Article2022-06-30

    Comparison of an Iranian Traditional Massage (Fateh Method) with Physiotherapy and Acupuncture for Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Parva Namiranian1, Mehrdad Karimi1, Seyede Zahra Emami Razavi2, Ahmad Fateh Garoos1, Mohammad Hossein Ayati1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 163-173 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.163

    Abstract : Background: Low back pain (LBP) is currently a major reason for disability worldwide. Therapeutic massage is one of the most popular non-pharmacological methods for managing chronic LBP (CLBP), and the Fateh method is a massage technique based on Iranian Traditional Medicine.Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the effects of Fateh massage with those of acupuncture and physiotherapy on relieving pain and disability in CLBP.Methods: Eighty-four patients with CLBP were categorized into groups that received Fateh massage, acupuncture, or physiotherapy. Each group included 28 randomly assigned patients who completed 10 sessions of therapy. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and Roland–Morris disability scores were evaluated at baseline, after intervention, and four weeks later. The findings were analyzed with SPSS software.Results: The baseline VAS and Roland–Morris scores of the three study groups did not indicate significant differences (p > 0.05). All three groups showed significant pre-post improvements in both scores (p < 0.05). At the end of the treatment sessions, the three groups showed no significant difference in the reductions in pain intensity and disability score (p > 0.05). Improvements in disability and pain between the first and third time points were significant in all three groups (p < 0.05 for each group). In addition, the results of massage, physiotherapy, and acupuncture groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). No adverse events occurred in the patients.Conclusion: The effects of Fateh massage were comparable to those of acupuncture and physiotherapy in reducing pain and disability in patients with CLBP.

  • Case Report2022-06-30

    Abstract : Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is disease that gives burdens for many countries, with a few choices for the management such as drugs or surgery, each has side effects that decrease the quality of life. Acupuncture is proven to be an effective treatment for pain and can restore nerve functions, and laser acupuncture is one of the modalities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of laser acupuncture with total sample of 3 patients (6 wrists) mostly with tingling sensations and the outcomes are Boston questionnaire (BCTQ), visual analogue scale (VAS), Tinel sign, Phalen sign, and parameters of nerve conduction study (NCS). Acupuncture points used here are PC6, PC7, EXUE9, and LI4. The results show a decrease in NCS grades for 3 wrists, all wrists have BCTQ score improvements, a decrease in VAS, but no significant improvement in Tinel and Phalen signs. It is concluded that laser acupuncture can be used as a treatment option for the management of carpal tunnel syndrome.


Journal Info

August, 2022
Vol.15 No.4

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2020-12-01

    Abstract : Background: Anthropometric and anatomical Chinese inch measurement (CUN) systems are useful in understanding the location of acupoints; however, locating acupoints is challenging. Objectives: The study aimed to locate LI4 and LI6, to measure differences and similarities in body dimensions based on sex using anthropometric and CUN systems, and to observe the relationship between f-cun and b-cun. Methods: 25 forearms and hands from 16 embalmed cadavers had body dimensions measured using anthropometric and CUN systems. LI4 and LI6 were located using a combination of both systems. Data were compiled and calculated to observe any variation in means and ranges. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. Results: LI4 was found on the skin at the lateral border of the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was found 3 cun or 74 ± 8 mm from LI5. Differences were observed between male and female cadavers and a large difference between f-cun and b-cun measurements of 1.5 to 3 cun. There were positive correlations between several body dimensions observed. Conclusions: LI4 was located on the dorsum of the hand, radial to the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was located 3 cun from LI5 with an error of 1 to ½ cun variation. The differences in f-cun and bcun in isolating LI6 seem to account for this error. Future studies using cadavers may need to take this error into consideration for variation and measuring differences.

  • Research Article2020-12-01

    Abstract : Background: Despite the adverse consequences of poor sleep during pregnancy, relatively few safe interventions exist for improving sleep among pregnant women. Nonpharmacological interventions are increasingly gaining acceptance. However, the effects of acupressure and acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ACUTENS) have not been widely reported. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, otherwise known as ACUTENS, and acupressure on sleep quality among pregnant women. Methods: Purposive sampling of 42 pregnant women with sleep disorders was conducted, and the participants were randomized into 3 groups, i.e., acupressure, ACUTENS, and usual care. interventions, which were carried out twice weekly for six weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index was used to determine the overall sleep quality. Results: The preintervention scores of sleep quality were 12.5 (3.75), 12.5 (4.0), and 13.0 (3.5) in the ACUTENS, acupressure, and usual care groups, respectively. The KruskaleWallis test did not show any significant difference in the preintervention sleep quality scores (H = 0.379, p = 0.827). Participants in the usual care group recorded the least improvement, with a score of 5.0 (2.25), the ACUTENS group recorded a score of 4.5 (3.0), and the greatest improvement was recorded in the acupressure group, with a score of 4.0 (2.2) after 6 weeks of intervention. The KruskaleWallis test did not show any significant difference in the postintervention sleep quality scores among the 3 groups (H = 0.666, p = 0.717). Conclusion: This study showed that ACUTENS and acupressure as an adjunct to usual care are not more effective than usual care alone in improving sleep quality among pregnant women.

  • Research Article2022-02-28

    GB20 Pharmacopuncture As a Potential Method for Brain Drug Delivery via the Perivascular Spaces

    Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya1,2,*, Inna Blokhina2, Nikita Navolokin2,3, Arina Evsukova2, Georgy Karandin2, Alexander Khorovodov2, Andrey Terskov2, Ivan Fedosov2, Alexander Dubrovsky2, Maria Tzoy2, Vasily Ageev2, Ilana Agranovich2, Valeria Telnova2, Anna Tsven2, Jürgen Kurths1,2,4
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(1): 43-49 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.1.43

    Abstract : Background: The development of new methods of drug brain delivery is a crucial step for the effective therapy of the brain diseases. Pharma- and acupuncture are the forms of alternative therapy of the brain pathology, including an increase in the permeability of blood-brain barrier. However, the mechanisms of pharma- and acupuncture-mediated effects on the brain physiology remain not fully understood. Results: This pilot study on healthy mice clearly demonstrates the Evans Blue spreading in the mouse head and in the brain via the perivascular spaces (PVSs) of the trigeminal structure and the cribriform plate after the dye injection into the Feng Chi point (Galbladder 20, GB20). Conclusion: These results suggest that pharmacopuncture at GB20 can be a perspective method for brain drug delivery via PVSs.

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  • Research Article2021-12-31

    Effects of Joint Mobilization Versus Acupuncture on Pain and Functional Ability in People with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Comparative Effectiveness

    Petros Voulgarakis, Paris Iakovidis, Dimitrios Lytras*, Ioanna P. Chatziprodromidou, Anastasios Kottaras, Thomas Apostolou
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(6): 231-237 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.6.231

    Abstract : Background: Chronic Neck Pain (CNP) is one of the main contributing factors to disability in people of working age.Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the efficacy between acupuncture and joint mobilization on pain and disability in patients with CNP. Methods: The study involved 45 men and women with CNP, divided into three groups of 15 each. The first group followed a manual therapy protocol with joint mobilization for eight weeks three times per week. The second group followed an acupuncture protocol of equal duration and frequency, while the third group did not follow any treatment. Pain with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain and functional limitations with the Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire were assessed before and after an 8-week intervention. Analysis of variance was applied while post-hoc comparisons were made to determine the differences among the groups at each time of measurement. Results: Both intervention groups showed statistically significant differences compared to the control group after the end of the intervention in both the VAS and the NDI scores (p< .001). Furthermore, the acupuncture group showed a statistically significant improvement compared to the joint mobilization team after the end of the intervention in the VAS score (p< .001) and the NDI score (p< .05). Conclusion: Both joint mobilization and acupuncture appear to be effective interventions in reducing pain and improving functional ability in people with CNP. However, acupuncture appears to have a greater analgesic effect than joint mobilization.

  • Research Article2021-08-31

    Application of Auriculotherapy for Post-Burn Scar Syndrome in Young Adults with Major Burns

    Cha-Chun Chen1,2,3, San-Pei Chen4, Shu-Yu Lyu3, Chung-Hua Hsu2,5,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(4): 127-136 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.4.127

    Abstract : Background: A burn scar is a type of hypertrophic scar that can cause significant clinical symptoms, discomfort, and post-burn scar (PBS) syndrome in up to 77% of patients with burn injuries. Medication and rehabilitation are rarely effective at managing patient discomfort, and both laser and surgical interventions are postponed until the scar stabilizes and discomfort is tolerable. Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture among burn victims from the Formosa Color Dust Explosion in Taiwan. Methods: We enrolled 31 victims of the 2016 Formosa Color Dust Explosion who met the study inclusion criteria. The intervention involved placement of magnetic beads over the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints on one ear. Patients performed selfmassage five times per day, and both magnet beads were removed between the fifth and seventh days during the sessions. Several evaluation tools were used to assess clinical symptoms: the visual analogue scale for pain assessment, Burn Man Itch Scale for perceived patient itchiness, 5-D Pruritus Scale for sleep quality, and heart rate variability (HRV) for effects on the autonomic nervous system. Results: The clinical symptoms were significantly decreased following the intervention, but the effect did not endure. The normal-to-normal heart rate interval, heart rate analysis abnormalities, and very low frequency heart rate were significantly decreased among patients with abnormal HRV (SD < 40) following treatment. Conclusion: Stimulation of the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints may effectively reduce pain, itchiness, and sleep disturbances among patients with PBS syndrome.

  • Research Article2021-02-28

    Abstract : Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is estimated to be one of the most common diseases affecting the liver because of its high prevalence worldwide. Abnormal lipid profile between NAFLD patients has been reported in several studies. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the lipid profile response to electroacupuncture in NAFLD patients. Methods: A total of 60 female patients with NAFLD were included in the study with ages ranged from (30-55) years old. They were divided equally into two groups, group A received electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at points of; LR14, LR3, ST36, and GB34. And group B received sham acupuncture application in non-acupuncture points. The demographic data and lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL), serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were recorded before and after the study. Results: The study results revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of LDL, TC, TG after 6 weeks of non-interrupted treatment sessions in group A, However HDL showed no significant improvement (p > 0.05). A significant difference was found between posttreatment values of LDL, TC, and TG between both groups. Conclusion: Electroacupuncture can be an effective, simple, and applicable method for the improvement of elevated lipid profiles in NAFLD patients.

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