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  • Research Article2022-08-31

    Effects of Lidocaine Injection at Acupuncture Points on Perioperative Analgesia in Cats Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

    Camila Menossi Sueza Lima, Camila Zanetti Segatto, Gustavo Ricci Zanelli, Gabriel Montoro Nicácio, Renata Navarro Cassu*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 255-263 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.255

    Abstract : Background: Pharmacopuncture is an acupuncture-related technique that has been used to amplify the therapeutic effects of different medications.Objectives: To investigate the analgesic efficacy of a lidocaine injection at acupoints in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.Methods: Thirty cats were randomly distributed into two groups (n = 15, per group). The experimental group received a bilateral administration of lidocaine at the following acupoints: Stomach 36 (ST-36) and Spleen 6 (SP-6) (Lido group). The control group did not receive lidocaine (Control group). All cats were sedated with dexmedetomidine and anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Intraoperatively, fentanyl was given to control cardiovascular responses to surgical stimulation. Postoperative pain was assessed at various time points, up to 24 hours after extubation, using the UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale (MCPS) and Glasgow feline composite measure pain scale (CMPS-Feline). Sedation scores were measured at the same time points. Morphine/meloxicam was administered as rescue analgesia. Data were analyzed using t-tests, Fisher´s exact test, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Friedman test (p < 0.05).Results: Intraoperatively, more cats in the Control group required analgesic supplementation than those in the Lido group, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.65). Postoperative pain, sedation scores, and analgesic requirements did not differ between groups. Rescue analgesia was given to 67% (10/15) of the cats in each group.Conclusion: The administration of lidocaine at ST-36 and SP-6 acupuncture points did not provide significant perioperative analgesic benefits in healthy cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  • Obituary2022-02-28

    Obituary: Professor Kwang-Sup Soh (1945-2021)

    Ku Youn Baik1, Hak Soo Shin2, Pan-Dong Ryu3,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(1): 1-3 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.1.1
  • Abstract : The purpose of this paper is to compare the biological research carried out in North Korea with the modern outcomes in the same field, from a historical perspective. In the 1960s, the group led by Bong-Han Kim asserted the existence of a fundamental circulatory system in the human body. Their findings were introduced in five papers as well as in the newspaper Rodong Sinmun. The size of the group, the range of equipment, and their findings expanded gradually, and the final paper on blood cells would be only published one of over sixty papers reported at that time. In the five papers, some unclear and inconsistent contents were found. Meanwhile, in the 2000s, PVS (primo vascular system) researchers have published over one hundred papers to prove the existence of this novel system. Some trends have emerged in approximately sixty papers as follows: The research on the identification of the anatomical and histological characteristics has gradually expanded to encompass the system’s own functioning. Also, new visual results (e.g. before and after dyeing, and its comparison with blood clots) and the exploration of possible medical applications (e.g. cancer metastasis channels or stem cells location) have been proposed. However, it is difficult to identify papers which comprehensively represented the elements claimed by Bong-Han Kim’s group. In addition, papers have been published more in alternative or Oriental medicine journals than in Western biomedical journals. It seems necessary to report more existence of the system in one laboratory animal and in more influential journals.

  • Clinical Study Protocol2022-08-31

    A Clinical Trial Protocol to Compare the Effect of Dry Needling and Acupoint Dry Needling on Wrist Flexor Spasticity after Stroke

    Najmeh Nazari1, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari1,2, Soofia Naghdi1,2,*, Pablo Herrero Gallego3, Roshanak Honarpisheh1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 273-278 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.273

    Abstract : Background: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults worldwide, with spasticity after stroke being one of the more common complications. Dry needling (DN) has been demonstrated to decrease spasticity in stroke patients, although its effects on improving function remain unclear. The purpose of this study protocol is to compare the short-term effects of DN versus acupoint DN on wrist flexor spasticity and upper extremity function in patients with stroke.Methods: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial will be conducted to include patients with stroke and upper extremity spasticity and functional disability. Twenty-four patients with stroke will be randomly assigned to either the DN or acupoint DN (DNap) group. These groups will receive three DN sessions during a one-week period of the wrist flexor muscles or at the LI4 & TE5 acupoints, respectively. The primary outcome measure is the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) of spasticity. The secondary outcomes are the Fugl–Meyer Assessment of motor function (FMA) and the goniometry to assess the active and passive range of motion of the wrist. Data will be collected at baseline, immediately after the end of three sessions DN, and at a one-week follow-up visit.Discussion: The results of this comparative study will help to determine the more effective method for reducing spasticity and improving motor function in patients with stroke.

  • Abstract : Introduction: Is Primo Vascular System (PVS) a paradox? Finding the connection between PVS as a carrier of information and the body’s reactions at the micro and macro levels will be the starting point in understanding the meaning of life as such. Before the past of PVS knowledge: The initial phase of medicine in all cultures is reduced to the transfer of specific energy by special pathways throughout the body! This is the case in China, India, Japan, Korea, Tibet, etc. Undoubtedly, the five articles by B. H. Kim published in the early 1960s are considered to be the past of PVS. Strange present: PVS studies after 2002 are accepted as a present. Most of the articles on the topic are in journals with editors-in-chief originating and/or accepting the achievements of Eastern medicine. Is the science of PVS local since its research is in journals that publish mainly articles on Eastern medicine? Why few of the articles concerning PVS are in Western medicine journals? PVS: after the future or some conclusions and proposals: All substances, objects, biological objects generate a weak electromagnetic radiation typical for each of them which is a passport of the information. PVS has all the data to be the main carrier of information. Information medicine and Quantum Biology can serve as a basis for medicine and biomedical sciences, and it should explain the processes that exist for the change of DNA and organisms in

  • Review Article2022-10-31

    Acupuncture for Osteoporosis: a Review of Its Clinical and Preclinical Studies

    Yimiao Tian1,†, Lili Wang2,†, Tianshu Xu1, Rui Li1, Ruyuan Zhu1, Beibei Chen1, Hao Zhang1, Bingke Xia1, Yiwen Che3, Dandan Zhao1,*, Dongwei Zhang1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(5): 281-299 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.5.281

    Abstract : Acupuncture has gained growing attention in the management of osteoporosis (OP). However, a comprehensive review has not yet been conducted on the efficacy and challenges of acupuncture in preliminary research and clinical trials. Therefore, an extensive literature search was conducted using electronic databases, including PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed), CNKI (www.cnki.net), and Web of Science, for studies published from the beginning of 2000 to the end of May 2022. Combinations of synonyms for OP, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, clinical trial, preclinical study, and animal experiments were searched. A total of 290 papers were consulted, including 115 reviews, 109 clinical observations, and 66 preclinical studies. There is accumulating evidence to support the beneficial role of acupuncture in preserving bone quality and relieving clinical symptoms based on clinical and preclinical investigations. The top ten most commonly used acupoints are BL23, ST36, BL20, BL11, CV4, GV4, SP 6, KI3, BL18, and GB39. The underlying mechanisms behind the benefits of acupuncture may be linked with the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (adrenal) axis and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin and OPG/RANKL/RANK signaling pathways. In summary, strong evidence may still come from prospective and well-designed clinical trials to shed light on the potential role of acupuncture in preserving bone loss. Future investigations are needed to explore the potential underlying mechanisms, long-term clinical efficacy, and compliance of acupuncture in OP management.

  • Research Article2022-02-28

    Adrenergic Control of Primo Tissue Size in Rats

    Yiming Shen , Yu Jeong Kim , Pan Dong Ryu *
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(1): 25-36 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.1.25

    Abstract : Background: Hyperplastic morphological changes associated with erythropoiesis have been reported in the primo vascular system (PVS) tissue on the surface of abdominal organs in rats with heart failure (HF) or hemolytic anemia (HA). Objectives: Since adrenergic activity is commonly activated in both HF and HA, we investigated whether adrenergic signaling mediates the abovementioned morphological changes. Methods: We compared the effects of adrenolytic treatments (exercise training and 6-hydroxydopamine) on the gross morphology of the PVS tissues isolated from organ surfaces in HF or HA rats. HF and HA were induced by ligating the left coronary artery and injecting phenylhydrazine, respectively. We further compared the effects of norepinephrine and norepinephrine plus α- or β-adrenoceptor blockers. Results: The number of samples per rat, PN size, and proportion of red-colored samples in the PVS tissue increased in the HF and HA rats. These changes were reversed by adrenolytic treatments. Interestingly, 6-hydroxydopamine also reversed phenylhydrazineinduced hemolytic changes in erythrocytes. Subcutaneous administration of norepinephrine (3 mg/kg/d) increased the sampling frequency per rat and the PN size, but these effects were blunted at a higher dose (10 mg/kg/d). Norepinephrine administration had little effect on the proportion of red-colored tissues. Norepinephrine-induced morphological changes were completely blocked by a β-adrenoceptor antagonist (propranolol) but increased slightly by an α-adrenoceptor antagonist (phentolamine). Conclusion: Adrenergic signaling controls hyperplastic changes in the organ surface PVS in rats. These findings may explain the morphological dynamics of the PVS tissues proposed by Bong Han Kim and further clarify the pathophysiological roles of the PVS.

  • Research Article2022-06-30

    Temperature Characteristics of Traditional Indirect Moxibustion and Electronic Moxibustion

    Dong-Joo Kim1, Hyo-Rim Jo2, Hansol Jang3, Seong-Kyeong Choi2, Chan-Yung Jung4, Won-Suk Sung2, Seung-Deok Lee5, Byung-Wook Lee6, Eun-Jung Kim2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 174-180 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.174

    Abstract : Background: Electronic moxibustion (EM) was developed to minimize the side effects of traditional moxibustion, such as burns, and to overcome therapeutic compliances such as smoke or smell.Objectives: To investigate distributions and thermal stimulation of EM at various depths using silicon phantom and to compare this methodology to traditional indirect moxibustion (TIM).Methods: A silicon phantom composed of polydimethylsiloxane was heated and immersed in a hot plate containing warm water to set the phantom’s temperature to that of biological tissue. K-type thermocouples were inserted into the phantom at depths of 0, 2, 5, 7, and 10 mm to measure temperature changes with thermal stimulation of EM or TIM placed on top of the phantom.Results: At the surface of the phantom, the peak temperature after applying TIM (55.04 ± 0.92℃ [Δ23.79 ± 0.96℃]) was significantly higher than after EM (43.25 ± 1.95℃ [Δ13.00 ± 2.23℃]), with both interventions reaching the highest temperature after 2 minutes. The temperature increase for TIM was also statistically significant compared to EM when measured at a depth of 2 mm. For the experimental setting with TIM, after reaching peak surface temperature, a rapid decrease was observed at the surface and 2 mm while EM showed a much more gradual decline. There was no significant difference in temperature change between the groups at depths of 5, 7, and 10 mm.Conclusion: TIM resulted in a higher temperature rise compared to EM at the surface and at a 2 mm depth reaching over 50℃, which creates risk of burns. Thermal stimulation with EM had a lower risk of burns with temperature increment not being statistically different from TIM below the depth of 5 mm.

  • Research Article2022-12-31

    Comparison of the Effects of Myofascial Meridian Stretching Exercises and Acupuncture in Patients with Low Back Pain

    Dilek Eker Büyükşireci1,*, Nesrin Demirsoy1, Setenay Mit2, Ersel Geçioğlu2, İlknur Onurlu1, Zafer Günendi1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(6): 347-355 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.6.347

    Abstract : Background: Acupuncture and myofascial meridians show great anatomical and clinical compatibility.Objectives: We aimed to compare the effects of myofascial meridian stretching exercises and acupuncture in patients with low back pain.Methods: We randomized 81 subjects with acute/subacute low back pain into three groups: an acupuncture (A) group, a myofascial meridian stretching (MMS) group, and a control (C) group. We recorded the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and Roland- Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) scores at baseline and weeks two and six. We evaluated posterior pelvic tilt and transversus abdominis muscle strenghth with a pressure biofeedback unit, back extensor muscle strength by the Sorenson test, and lumbar range of motion (ROM) with an inclinometer. Group A received acupuncture (BL 57 and BL 62 acupoints) and stretching exercises according to the posterior superficial line were applied to the MMS group.Results: Improvements in the NRS score were more prominent in group A than in group C (p = 0.004). The RMQ score improvement between baseline and weeks two and six was more prominent in groups A and MMS (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). The Sorenson test showed significant improvement between the baseline and week two in groups A and MMS (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, respectively). The increase in lumbar ROM measurement in the MMS group between baseline and week two was significantly higher than in groups A and C (p = 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively).Conclusion: Stretching exercises according to the myofascial meridian system and acupuncture contributed to improved symptoms in the first two weeks in patients with acute/subacute low-back pain.

  • Research Article2022-10-31

    Effect of Acupressure on Dental Anxiety in Children: a Pilot Study for a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Maria Eliza Consolação Soares1,*, Alessandra de Souza Araújo1, Isabela Carvalhaes Lagares Pinto1, Luiza Silveira Araújo Barbosa1, Maria Cristina Borsatto2, Rodrigo Galo3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(5): 307-313 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.5.307

    Abstract : Background: Anxiety is an important problem in children in dental clinics. Acupressure may be a useful tool to assist in dental procedures in anxious children.Objectives: This pilot study was performed to examine the effects of acupressure on dental anxiety in children undergoing restorative procedures.Methods: Fourteen children aged 7-10 years and with at least one primary molar with caries on the dentine were included in the study. The participants also needed to score at least one point on the modified Venham Picture Test (VPTm) for the determination of anxiety. The children were randomly allocated to two groups: group A — non-documented points for the reduction of anxiety and induction of relaxation; group B — documented points (EX-HN3, Shen Men of auricular acupuncture). The anxiety scale was administered on three occasions: prior to the application of acupressure; immediately after sitting in the dental chair to undergo restorative treatment; and after removal of acupressure at the end of the restorative procedure. Heart rate (HR) was measured when each child sat in the dental chair, after the removal of carious tissue, and after the removal of acupressure.Results: After the procedure, HR (as an indicator of anxiety) was statistically significantly lower in group B than group A (p = 0.02). However, there was no significant difference between the groups regarding anxiety before and during the restorative procedure (VPTm and HR: p > 0.05).Conclusion: The children who received acupressure on documented points for the reduction of anxiety had a significantly lower HR after the restorative procedure. No significant between-group difference was found regarding anxiety measured using a psychometric evaluation (VPTm).


Journal Info

December, 2022
Vol.15 No.6

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2021-12-31

    Effects of Joint Mobilization Versus Acupuncture on Pain and Functional Ability in People with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Comparative Effectiveness

    Petros Voulgarakis, Paris Iakovidis, Dimitrios Lytras*, Ioanna P. Chatziprodromidou, Anastasios Kottaras, Thomas Apostolou
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(6): 231-237 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.6.231

    Abstract : Background: Chronic Neck Pain (CNP) is one of the main contributing factors to disability in people of working age.Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the efficacy between acupuncture and joint mobilization on pain and disability in patients with CNP. Methods: The study involved 45 men and women with CNP, divided into three groups of 15 each. The first group followed a manual therapy protocol with joint mobilization for eight weeks three times per week. The second group followed an acupuncture protocol of equal duration and frequency, while the third group did not follow any treatment. Pain with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain and functional limitations with the Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire were assessed before and after an 8-week intervention. Analysis of variance was applied while post-hoc comparisons were made to determine the differences among the groups at each time of measurement. Results: Both intervention groups showed statistically significant differences compared to the control group after the end of the intervention in both the VAS and the NDI scores (p< .001). Furthermore, the acupuncture group showed a statistically significant improvement compared to the joint mobilization team after the end of the intervention in the VAS score (p< .001) and the NDI score (p< .05). Conclusion: Both joint mobilization and acupuncture appear to be effective interventions in reducing pain and improving functional ability in people with CNP. However, acupuncture appears to have a greater analgesic effect than joint mobilization.

  • Review Article2021-04-30

    Abstract : Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as cramping pain in the lower abdomen with no pelvic diseases, and it has a high prevalence in many countries. Acupressure is a widely used complementary treatment method for primary dysmenorrhea. This review examined experimental studies to determine the effects of acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea using the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINAHL with the keywords “Acupressure” and “Dysmenorrhea”. There were 2227 records in the databases, and 330 articles were published between 1989 and March 2020. Experimental studies in the English language were reviewed according to the PRISMA guidelines. This review included 28 published studies that were assessed using the Jadad score for quality. The studies were categorized as studies of acupressure at the LR3 point (n = 4), at the SP6 point (n = 9), at auricular points (n = 5), at multiple points (n = 8), and with devices (n = 2). Moreover, studies of self-acupressure (n = 9) were identified. The studies demonstrated that acupressure could reduce menstrual symptoms, the severity and duration of menstrual pain, distress, and anxiety. Furthermore, it helped improve the quality of life and well-being of patients and provide psychological support and self-care. Acupressure is an inexpensive, easy-to-apply, and non-pharmacological treatment and is useful for reducing primary dysmenorrhea, and women can apply this method anywhere by themselves. However, high-quality randomized controlled trials with larger samples are necessary to establish the evidence for acupressure as an effective intervention.

  • Research Article2021-02-28

    Abstract : Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is estimated to be one of the most common diseases affecting the liver because of its high prevalence worldwide. Abnormal lipid profile between NAFLD patients has been reported in several studies. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the lipid profile response to electroacupuncture in NAFLD patients. Methods: A total of 60 female patients with NAFLD were included in the study with ages ranged from (30-55) years old. They were divided equally into two groups, group A received electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at points of; LR14, LR3, ST36, and GB34. And group B received sham acupuncture application in non-acupuncture points. The demographic data and lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL), serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were recorded before and after the study. Results: The study results revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of LDL, TC, TG after 6 weeks of non-interrupted treatment sessions in group A, However HDL showed no significant improvement (p > 0.05). A significant difference was found between posttreatment values of LDL, TC, and TG between both groups. Conclusion: Electroacupuncture can be an effective, simple, and applicable method for the improvement of elevated lipid profiles in NAFLD patients.

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  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation of PC5 and PC6 Acupoints Increases Sympathovagal Balance but Not Oxidative Stress in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Fernando Gomes de Jesus1,2, Alice Pereira Duque1,2, Carole Sant'ana Massolar1, Giselle Pinto de Faria Lopes1, Ana Carolina de Azevedo Carvalho3, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano2,4, Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Junior1,2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(5): 183-192 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.5.183

    Abstract : Background: Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) improves autonomic balance and reduces oxidative stress in subjects with chronic diseases, that decreases the risk of low-grade chronic inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. However, these beneficial effects have never been demonstrated in healthy subjects. Objectives: To evaluate the acute effects of TEAS on autonomic balance and oxidative stress of healthy subjects. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with male healthy subjects (18-30 years old), randomly allocated to control (no intervention; n = 14), placebo (placebo intervention; n = 14) and TEAS group (at PC5 and PC6 acupoints; n = 13). The protocol consisted of accommodation (20 min), intervention (40 min), and recovery (30 min) periods. The acute effects of TEAS on hemodynamics were studied through measurements of heart rate, blood pressure and double product; on the autonomic nervous system by assessing heart rate variability; and on oxidative stress by quantifying reactive oxygen species in saliva samples, collected at the end of each period. Results: TEAS increased heart rate and double-product compared to control and placebo groups (p < 0.01). Moreover, TEAS increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic tonus, increasing the sympathovagal balance compared to the control and placebo groups. However, TEAS exerted no effect on oxidative stress in saliva samples. Conclusion: In healthy subjects, TEAS at PC5 and PC6 acupoints acutely improved autonomic balance, increasing sympathetic and reducing parasympathetic tonus, reflecting little improvement on hemodynamic responses. Whether it could be used as a cardioprotective strategy remains uncertain since it exerted no effect on oxidative stress.

  • Research Article2021-08-31

    Application of Auriculotherapy for Post-Burn Scar Syndrome in Young Adults with Major Burns

    Cha-Chun Chen1,2,3, San-Pei Chen4, Shu-Yu Lyu3, Chung-Hua Hsu2,5,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(4): 127-136 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.4.127

    Abstract : Background: A burn scar is a type of hypertrophic scar that can cause significant clinical symptoms, discomfort, and post-burn scar (PBS) syndrome in up to 77% of patients with burn injuries. Medication and rehabilitation are rarely effective at managing patient discomfort, and both laser and surgical interventions are postponed until the scar stabilizes and discomfort is tolerable. Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture among burn victims from the Formosa Color Dust Explosion in Taiwan. Methods: We enrolled 31 victims of the 2016 Formosa Color Dust Explosion who met the study inclusion criteria. The intervention involved placement of magnetic beads over the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints on one ear. Patients performed selfmassage five times per day, and both magnet beads were removed between the fifth and seventh days during the sessions. Several evaluation tools were used to assess clinical symptoms: the visual analogue scale for pain assessment, Burn Man Itch Scale for perceived patient itchiness, 5-D Pruritus Scale for sleep quality, and heart rate variability (HRV) for effects on the autonomic nervous system. Results: The clinical symptoms were significantly decreased following the intervention, but the effect did not endure. The normal-to-normal heart rate interval, heart rate analysis abnormalities, and very low frequency heart rate were significantly decreased among patients with abnormal HRV (SD < 40) following treatment. Conclusion: Stimulation of the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints may effectively reduce pain, itchiness, and sleep disturbances among patients with PBS syndrome.

  • Perspective Article2021-06-30

    An Immunological Hypothesis of Fu’s Subcutaneous Needling Acupuncture

    Wenbo Xu*, Jidong Wu, Ping Xu
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(3): 110-115 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.3.110

    Abstract : Fu’s subcutaneous needling (FSN) is a novel acupuncture approach. Although it has been popularized and widely used by acupuncture practitioners, theoretical research on its mechanism of action remains lacking. This study establishes an immunological hypothesis for the efficacy of FSN basis existing knowledge in biomedical science, histology and physiology, and traditional acupuncture mechanisms. The theoretical inference indicates that FSN treatment may affect the body's immune system through subcutaneous connective tissue, similar to triggering a cobweb-like system. This article also proposes possible clinical implications of this theory, which require further studies to validate.

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