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  • Research Article2022-02-28

    Primo Vascular Node in the Bone Marrow and Longevity

    Vitaly Vodyanoy1,2,*, Oleg Pustovyy1, Ludmila Globa1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(1): 12-24 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.1.12

    Abstract : Background: Intra-organic bone marrow node is predicted to be a part of the primo vascular system that plays a critical role in hematopoiesis and generation and regeneration of other cells. Two models of cell regeneration were suggested, one involving DNA synthesis and the other pertaining to DNA recycling. Objectives: The aim of this work is to extract a primo node from bone marrow, characterize its structure, understand its biochemistry and cell composition, and suggest a cell regeneration mechanism. Methods: Primo nodes were sampled from segmented halves of the rat femur. We used immunohistochemistry and high-resolution fluorescent microscopy to analyze 1200 samples obtained from 42 rats and 190 primo nodes. Results: Primo nodes in the bone marrow have an oval or round structure of about one millimeter in diameter, which is encompassed by a fine capsule, having incoming and outgoing vessels filled with the extracellular matrix and hematopoietic, mesenchymal, endothelial stem cells, as well as cells of the megakaryocyte family found in other primo nodes. Conclusion: Our findings imply that bone marrow nodes are intra-organic primo vascular nodes, and they provide ways and approaches for further investigation. Bone marrow nodes are simple to examine ex vivo in a variety of environments to assess cell regeneration mechanisms, wound healing, and organism rejuvenation and lifespan. Further research into these and other intra-organic nodes in animals and humans could lead to new regenerative medicine and longevity strategies that have yet to be discovered.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2022-08-31

    Effects of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Dogs with Neurological Sequels of Distemper Virus

    Bianca P. C. R. Santos1, Jean G. F. Joaquim2, Renata Navarro Cassu3,*, José C. F. Pantoja1, Stelio Pacca Loureiro Luna1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 238-246 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.238

    Abstract : Background: Acupuncture (AP) has been empirically used to relieve post-canine distemper virus (CDV) infection neurological signs in veterinary clinics.Objectives: This clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of AP combined with electroacupuncture (EA) on neurological function in dogs infected by CDV.Methods: Twenty-four CDV-infected dogs with neurological sequelae were recruited to receive weekly AP/EA sections for 24 weeks. Neurological improvements were assessed before each AP/EA session using a modified scoring system. Data were analyzed using the McNemar test, Friedman test, Fisher's exact test, and Kaplan-Meier curves (p < 0.05).Results: Neurological scores improved from seven to 24 weeks after AP/EA treatment compared with pretreatment scores (p < 0.001). Significant improvements were recorded over time for functional limb recovery, cranial nerve deficits, mental status (p = 0.025 – 0.014), and urinary function (p < 0.001). Myoclonus was improved and entirely reversed in 75% and 25% of the dogs, respectively. At the end of treatment, the proportion of dogs with normal proprioception, posture, hopping (p < 0.001), and superficial pain sensation responses (p = 0.004) was greater than pretreatment values.Conclusion: AP/EA therapy promoted significant neurological recovery in CDV-infected dogs and may be considered within the chronic phase of the disease to improve motor and sensory rehabilitation. However, these results are preliminary and must be confirmed by further investigations.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2022-08-31

    The Adjunctive Effects of Acupuncture for Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: a Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Study

    Dwi Rachma Helianthi1, Atikah C. Barasila1,2, Salim Harris3, Robert Sinto4, Yordan Khaedir2, Irman1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 247-254 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.247

    Abstract : Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that can induce cytokine storm. To this point, no specific drug has been effective for curing COVID-19.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a combination of acupuncture intervention and pharmacologic treatment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate symptoms.Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial of hospitalized COVID-19 patients confirmed by RT-PCR examination with mild-moderate symptoms was conducted from August to September 2020. Participants were assigned to the treatment group (receiving pharmacologic treatment and manual acupuncture intervention) or the control group (receiving only pharmacologic treatment). Laboratory outcomes, including complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), were measured before and after the intervention. For clinical outcomes, we evaluated the duration of the cough symptom.Results: We found that participants in the treatment group had a shorter duration of the cough symptom compared to the control group, and the difference was statistically significant. In the treatment group, we found an increase in the percentage of lymphocyte count and ESR, while in the control group, both parameters were decreased; however, the differences were not statistically significant. There was a decrease in the mean of CRP and ferritin levels in both groups, and the differences were not statistically significant.Conclusion: Our study has shown promising results for the effects of combined treatment of acupuncture and pharmacologic treatment on the duration of the cough symptom in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with mild-moderate symptoms. Further large-scale studies with rigorous design are needed to examine these preliminary results.

    Abstract
  • Case Report2022-06-30

    Warm Cupping of the Posterior Thorax in Combination with Standard Conventional Therapy for ARDS in COVID-19 Patients in ICU: a Case Series

    Mehrdad Karimi1, Amir Hooman Kazemi1,2, Asma Asadi3, Azadeh Zarei1, Arman Zargaran4, Seyed Ali Al-hadi Moravej5, Seyede Ferdos Jazayeri5, Omid Nabavian6, Seyedeh Aida Ahmadi6, Reihane Alipour1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 194-200 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.194

    Abstract : Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is commonly found in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As a non-pharmacological treatment of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), cupping has been clinically used for respiratory symptoms. We sequentially identified a series of patients with COVID-19 with ARDS who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Warm cupping of the posterior thorax was performed for seven days. We collected longitudinal severity scores on cough, breathlessness, chest tightness, type of oxygen therapy, and oxygen saturation (SpO2). We hereby report the changes in the severity scores in a series of eight patients who received 21 sessions of cupping in addition to conventional treatments. All patients reported improvement in symptom scores that was matched by an increase in SpO2 by as much as 3.16%. All patients were discharged and did not require the use of a mechanical ventilator. The results suggest that combining cupping with conventional treatment may provide a good prognosis for patients with COVID-19 with ARDS.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2022-02-28

    GB20 Pharmacopuncture As a Potential Method for Brain Drug Delivery via the Perivascular Spaces

    Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya1,2,*, Inna Blokhina2, Nikita Navolokin2,3, Arina Evsukova2, Georgy Karandin2, Alexander Khorovodov2, Andrey Terskov2, Ivan Fedosov2, Alexander Dubrovsky2, Maria Tzoy2, Vasily Ageev2, Ilana Agranovich2, Valeria Telnova2, Anna Tsven2, Jürgen Kurths1,2,4
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(1): 43-49 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.1.43

    Abstract : Background: The development of new methods of drug brain delivery is a crucial step for the effective therapy of the brain diseases. Pharma- and acupuncture are the forms of alternative therapy of the brain pathology, including an increase in the permeability of blood-brain barrier. However, the mechanisms of pharma- and acupuncture-mediated effects on the brain physiology remain not fully understood. Results: This pilot study on healthy mice clearly demonstrates the Evans Blue spreading in the mouse head and in the brain via the perivascular spaces (PVSs) of the trigeminal structure and the cribriform plate after the dye injection into the Feng Chi point (Galbladder 20, GB20). Conclusion: These results suggest that pharmacopuncture at GB20 can be a perspective method for brain drug delivery via PVSs.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-08-31

    Age Differences in Naloxone Reversibility of Electroacupuncture on the Jaw Opening Reflex in Rats

    Hiromi Yamashita1, Jorge Luis Lopes Zeredo2, Kazuo Toda3,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(4): 167-172 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.4.167

    Abstract : Background: Electroacupuncture is one of the most popular physical treatments for clinical pain, but the potential influence of a patient’s age on the effectiveness of electroacupuncture treatment has not been clearly established. Objectives: The present study aimed to detect a potential difference in electroacupuncture- induced analgesia between juvenile and adult rats. Methods: In this study, we investigated the effects of electroacupuncture treatment on the nociceptive jaw-opening reflex evoked by tooth-pulp stimulation in juvenile and adult rats. Results: Our results showed there were age differences in electroacupuncture-induced analgesic effects in rats, especially with naloxone antagonization. The ratio of naloxonereversibility against electroacupuncture analgesia was greater in adult rats than in juvenile rats. Conclusion: These results suggest that electroacupuncture analgesia is produced mainly by the non-opioid system in juvenile rats and by the opioid system in adult rats.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Background: The primo vascular system can be viewed as a circulatory system that plays a therapeutic function in regenerating the body tissue. The anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody was used as an immunotherapeutic agent to treat the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Objectives: In this study, we observed the effect of injecting lymph nodes with Foralumab, an anti- human CD3 epsilon therapeutic monoclonal antibody, on primo vessels. Methods: The structure and atomic stoichiometry of the antibody were determined by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Alcian blue dying solution was injected into the lymph nodes of the abdominal vena cava of rabbits, and the solution further flowed into the lymph vessels. Results: A primo vessel with primo nodes stained with Alcian blue was clearly visible in the lymph vessel. By injecting Foralumab into lymph nodes of rabbits with lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the floating primo vessel in the lymph vessel appeared thicker and was distinctly visible. Conclusion: The observation of the primo vessel post-treated with Foralumab in the inflamed lymphatic system suggests the possibility of a functional role of the primo vascular circulatory system in pathophysiological conditions.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2022-08-31

    Abstract : Currently, acupressure is widely accepted as a non-pharmacological therapy for managing pain, nausea and vomiting, and mental health conditions. Since acupressure can be self-administered, clinicians and researchers’ interest in information and communication technologies (ICTs) for disseminating acupressure to manage symptoms has increased. This mini review was conducted to examine clinical studies of acupressure using ICTs, with a particular focus on self-acupressure. Through a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL, all studies of self-acupressure using ICTs published before December 31, 2021 were collected. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. More than half of the studies published since 2020 (4/7, 54.14%) were described as being related to COVID-19. As target conditions, musculoskeletal injuries or pain, cancer-related symptoms, dysmenorrhea, mental health issues, and obesity were considered. The most frequently used acupoints were LI4, LR3, and Shenmen. Moreover, smartphone applications were the most commonly used ICT method to support self-acupressure. In addition to the basic information of self-acupressure, other tools such as timers, reminders, and schedule checkers to facilitate its implementations have been incorporated into the smartphone applications. Recently, there have been some attempts to combine acupressure and ICTs. Although these studies mainly focus on musculoskeletal pain or injuries, recent studies related to mental health have emerged in relation to COVID-19. However, few studies have been conducted to date, making it difficult to fully grasp the trends in this field. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of combining self-acupressure and ICTs in more diverse clinical areas.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Depression is a common illness worldwide. Acupuncture is used as an alternative to non-pharmacological therapy. This study aimed to identify the development and global trends in the study of acupuncture therapy for depression over the past two decades using a bibliometric analysis. Articles published between 2001 and 2020 on acupuncture for depression were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Extracted information included authors, organizations, countries, keywords, and journals. The VOSviewer program was used to visualize the impacts and network hubs of the keywords, authors, and affiliations. Analyses of 871 original and review articles revealed that the number of publications has continually increased over the past 20 years. China has published the maximum number of articles, followed by the United States and South Korea. As for research areas, integrative complementary medicine was most well represented in terms of the number of articles. Co-occurrence analysis of keywords indicated that each five sub-group cluster (including “pain related to depressive symptoms,” “CAM therapies of depression,” “comorbid disease or symptoms of depression,” “clinical trials of depression,” and “mechanism of acupuncture on depression”) has its own impact keyword. The most recent keywords were “protocol” and “systematic review,” whereas early keywords were “acupuncture analgesia” and “St john’s wort.” Co-authorship analysis of authors and organizations revealed 4 influential authors and 2 organizations in the field of acupuncture for depression. The present study provided influential keywords that show comorbid symptoms, treatments, and mechanism. Additionally, it revealed the influential persons or groups related to acupuncture therapy for depression.

    Abstract
  • Case Report2022-06-30

    Abstract : Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is disease that gives burdens for many countries, with a few choices for the management such as drugs or surgery, each has side effects that decrease the quality of life. Acupuncture is proven to be an effective treatment for pain and can restore nerve functions, and laser acupuncture is one of the modalities. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of laser acupuncture with total sample of 3 patients (6 wrists) mostly with tingling sensations and the outcomes are Boston questionnaire (BCTQ), visual analogue scale (VAS), Tinel sign, Phalen sign, and parameters of nerve conduction study (NCS). Acupuncture points used here are PC6, PC7, EXUE9, and LI4. The results show a decrease in NCS grades for 3 wrists, all wrists have BCTQ score improvements, a decrease in VAS, but no significant improvement in Tinel and Phalen signs. It is concluded that laser acupuncture can be used as a treatment option for the management of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
October, 2022
Vol.15 No.5

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2022-02-28

    GB20 Pharmacopuncture As a Potential Method for Brain Drug Delivery via the Perivascular Spaces

    Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya1,2,*, Inna Blokhina2, Nikita Navolokin2,3, Arina Evsukova2, Georgy Karandin2, Alexander Khorovodov2, Andrey Terskov2, Ivan Fedosov2, Alexander Dubrovsky2, Maria Tzoy2, Vasily Ageev2, Ilana Agranovich2, Valeria Telnova2, Anna Tsven2, Jürgen Kurths1,2,4
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(1): 43-49 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.1.43

    Abstract : Background: The development of new methods of drug brain delivery is a crucial step for the effective therapy of the brain diseases. Pharma- and acupuncture are the forms of alternative therapy of the brain pathology, including an increase in the permeability of blood-brain barrier. However, the mechanisms of pharma- and acupuncture-mediated effects on the brain physiology remain not fully understood. Results: This pilot study on healthy mice clearly demonstrates the Evans Blue spreading in the mouse head and in the brain via the perivascular spaces (PVSs) of the trigeminal structure and the cribriform plate after the dye injection into the Feng Chi point (Galbladder 20, GB20). Conclusion: These results suggest that pharmacopuncture at GB20 can be a perspective method for brain drug delivery via PVSs.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Comparison of the Effects of Electroacupuncture and Melatonin on Nerve Regeneration in Experimentally Nerve-Damaged Rats

    Yasemin Özkan1,*, Mehmet Turgut2, Yasemin Turan1, Mehmet Dinçer Bilgin3, Sinem Sari4, Mustafa Yilmaz3, Yiğit Uyanikgil5, Mahmut Alp Kiliç3, Derya Tanriöver5, Zehra Seznur Kasar1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(5): 176-182 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.5.176

    Abstract : Background: Development of methods to accelerate nerve regeneration in peripheral nerve damage is important. Electroacupuncture is a new therapeutic method that combines traditional acupuncture with modern electrotherapy. Melatonin has been shown to reduce nerve damage. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine and compare the therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture and melatonin on rat sciatic nerve injury. Methods: A total of 56 adult male Wistar Albino rats were divided into four study groups with 14 animals in each group: intact control (group I), subcutaneous saline (group II), subcutaneous melatonin (group III), and electroacupuncture (group IV). Surgical procedure including unilateral (right) sciatic nerve injury was applied to groups II, III, and IV. Saline and melatonin started immediately after surgery for six weeks, while electroacupuncture was given two weeks after surgery for 3 weeks. Functional and histological assessments were used as outcome measurements. Results: Sciatic nerve damage caused a significant decrease in nerve conduction velocity. Both electroacupuncture treatment and melatonin treatment significantly increased the nerve conduction velocity. Both sciatic functional recovery and histological regeneration were faster in these treatment groups compared to the saline. However, no significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups. Conclusion: Electroacupuncture and melatonin are promising alternative treatment strategies for peripheral nerve damage and can be examined in detail in future studies.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-12-31

    Effects of Joint Mobilization Versus Acupuncture on Pain and Functional Ability in People with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Comparative Effectiveness

    Petros Voulgarakis, Paris Iakovidis, Dimitrios Lytras*, Ioanna P. Chatziprodromidou, Anastasios Kottaras, Thomas Apostolou
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(6): 231-237 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.6.231

    Abstract : Background: Chronic Neck Pain (CNP) is one of the main contributing factors to disability in people of working age.Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the efficacy between acupuncture and joint mobilization on pain and disability in patients with CNP. Methods: The study involved 45 men and women with CNP, divided into three groups of 15 each. The first group followed a manual therapy protocol with joint mobilization for eight weeks three times per week. The second group followed an acupuncture protocol of equal duration and frequency, while the third group did not follow any treatment. Pain with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain and functional limitations with the Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire were assessed before and after an 8-week intervention. Analysis of variance was applied while post-hoc comparisons were made to determine the differences among the groups at each time of measurement. Results: Both intervention groups showed statistically significant differences compared to the control group after the end of the intervention in both the VAS and the NDI scores (p< .001). Furthermore, the acupuncture group showed a statistically significant improvement compared to the joint mobilization team after the end of the intervention in the VAS score (p< .001) and the NDI score (p< .05). Conclusion: Both joint mobilization and acupuncture appear to be effective interventions in reducing pain and improving functional ability in people with CNP. However, acupuncture appears to have a greater analgesic effect than joint mobilization.

    Abstract
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  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Abstract : Background: Despite the adherence to medications, the control of the modifiable key risk factor—intraocular pressure (IOP)—for the progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in diabetics is usually difficult; hence, many glaucoma patients try other alternative therapeutic options. Objectives: This randomized controlled study investigated the short-term IOP response to the combined effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation over acupoint (Acu-TENS) and yoga ocular exercise in type 2 diabetics with POAG. Methods: Eighty diabetics with bilateral POAG, ages ≥ 50 years, IOP > 21 mmHg in both eyes, and a body mass index below 30 kg/m2 were included in this trial. The patients were randomly assigned to group A (n = 40; this group received 20 minutes of yoga ocular exercise followed by 20 minutes of active Acu-TENS over bilateral BL 61 and BL 62 acupoints) and group B (n = 40; this group received the same protocol as group A but with a placebo Acu-TENS). The repeated measurement of IOP were recorded before, immediately after, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after the sessions. Results: The repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a greater significant decline of IOP in group A than group B in both eyes at the consecutive intervals of time measurements. Conclusion: According to this short-term observation, the addition of Acu-TENS to yoga ocular exercise could reduce the high IOP in diabetic patients with POAG, but further longterm trials are needed.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation of PC5 and PC6 Acupoints Increases Sympathovagal Balance but Not Oxidative Stress in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Fernando Gomes de Jesus1,2, Alice Pereira Duque1,2, Carole Sant'ana Massolar1, Giselle Pinto de Faria Lopes1, Ana Carolina de Azevedo Carvalho3, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano2,4, Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Junior1,2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(5): 183-192 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.5.183

    Abstract : Background: Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) improves autonomic balance and reduces oxidative stress in subjects with chronic diseases, that decreases the risk of low-grade chronic inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. However, these beneficial effects have never been demonstrated in healthy subjects. Objectives: To evaluate the acute effects of TEAS on autonomic balance and oxidative stress of healthy subjects. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with male healthy subjects (18-30 years old), randomly allocated to control (no intervention; n = 14), placebo (placebo intervention; n = 14) and TEAS group (at PC5 and PC6 acupoints; n = 13). The protocol consisted of accommodation (20 min), intervention (40 min), and recovery (30 min) periods. The acute effects of TEAS on hemodynamics were studied through measurements of heart rate, blood pressure and double product; on the autonomic nervous system by assessing heart rate variability; and on oxidative stress by quantifying reactive oxygen species in saliva samples, collected at the end of each period. Results: TEAS increased heart rate and double-product compared to control and placebo groups (p < 0.01). Moreover, TEAS increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic tonus, increasing the sympathovagal balance compared to the control and placebo groups. However, TEAS exerted no effect on oxidative stress in saliva samples. Conclusion: In healthy subjects, TEAS at PC5 and PC6 acupoints acutely improved autonomic balance, increasing sympathetic and reducing parasympathetic tonus, reflecting little improvement on hemodynamic responses. Whether it could be used as a cardioprotective strategy remains uncertain since it exerted no effect on oxidative stress.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-08-31

    Application of Auriculotherapy for Post-Burn Scar Syndrome in Young Adults with Major Burns

    Cha-Chun Chen1,2,3, San-Pei Chen4, Shu-Yu Lyu3, Chung-Hua Hsu2,5,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(4): 127-136 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.4.127

    Abstract : Background: A burn scar is a type of hypertrophic scar that can cause significant clinical symptoms, discomfort, and post-burn scar (PBS) syndrome in up to 77% of patients with burn injuries. Medication and rehabilitation are rarely effective at managing patient discomfort, and both laser and surgical interventions are postponed until the scar stabilizes and discomfort is tolerable. Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture among burn victims from the Formosa Color Dust Explosion in Taiwan. Methods: We enrolled 31 victims of the 2016 Formosa Color Dust Explosion who met the study inclusion criteria. The intervention involved placement of magnetic beads over the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints on one ear. Patients performed selfmassage five times per day, and both magnet beads were removed between the fifth and seventh days during the sessions. Several evaluation tools were used to assess clinical symptoms: the visual analogue scale for pain assessment, Burn Man Itch Scale for perceived patient itchiness, 5-D Pruritus Scale for sleep quality, and heart rate variability (HRV) for effects on the autonomic nervous system. Results: The clinical symptoms were significantly decreased following the intervention, but the effect did not endure. The normal-to-normal heart rate interval, heart rate analysis abnormalities, and very low frequency heart rate were significantly decreased among patients with abnormal HRV (SD < 40) following treatment. Conclusion: Stimulation of the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints may effectively reduce pain, itchiness, and sleep disturbances among patients with PBS syndrome.

    Abstract
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