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  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation of PC5 and PC6 Acupoints Increases Sympathovagal Balance but Not Oxidative Stress in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Fernando Gomes de Jesus1,2, Alice Pereira Duque1,2, Carole Sant'ana Massolar1, Giselle Pinto de Faria Lopes1, Ana Carolina de Azevedo Carvalho3, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano2,4, Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Junior1,2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(5): 183-192 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.5.183

    Abstract : Background: Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) improves autonomic balance and reduces oxidative stress in subjects with chronic diseases, that decreases the risk of low-grade chronic inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. However, these beneficial effects have never been demonstrated in healthy subjects. Objectives: To evaluate the acute effects of TEAS on autonomic balance and oxidative stress of healthy subjects. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with male healthy subjects (18-30 years old), randomly allocated to control (no intervention; n = 14), placebo (placebo intervention; n = 14) and TEAS group (at PC5 and PC6 acupoints; n = 13). The protocol consisted of accommodation (20 min), intervention (40 min), and recovery (30 min) periods. The acute effects of TEAS on hemodynamics were studied through measurements of heart rate, blood pressure and double product; on the autonomic nervous system by assessing heart rate variability; and on oxidative stress by quantifying reactive oxygen species in saliva samples, collected at the end of each period. Results: TEAS increased heart rate and double-product compared to control and placebo groups (p < 0.01). Moreover, TEAS increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic tonus, increasing the sympathovagal balance compared to the control and placebo groups. However, TEAS exerted no effect on oxidative stress in saliva samples. Conclusion: In healthy subjects, TEAS at PC5 and PC6 acupoints acutely improved autonomic balance, increasing sympathetic and reducing parasympathetic tonus, reflecting little improvement on hemodynamic responses. Whether it could be used as a cardioprotective strategy remains uncertain since it exerted no effect on oxidative stress.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Background: The primo vascular system (PVS) has been difficult to detect due to its small diameter and translucent features of the threadlike network. Thus, contrast-enhancing dyes including Alcian blue, Trypan blue and Janus green B had to be used for finding and taking out PVS from rat and mouse. Objective: Generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against PVS of rat was intended to use as a detector for PVS and a biological tool for functional study of PVS. Materials and methods: Primo vessel (PV) and Primo node (PN) were isolated from organ surfaces of rat and then their proteins were isolated and injected into mouse as an immunogen. The classical traditional method was applied for production of mAbs against PVS. The various techniques, such as cell fusion, screening of hybridoma, ELISA, Western blotting (WB), immunofluorescence microscopy (IF), and limiting dilution, were used to generate mAbs against PVS. Results: Among 16 mAbs generated, 4 representative mAbs were characterized with their specificities in ELISA, WB, and IF. α-rPVS-m1-1 and α-rPVS-m4-6 had strong binding affinities to PVS in both ELISA and WB but did not show specificities in IF at all. On the contrary, α-rPVS-m3-2 and α-rPVS-m3-4 almost did not respond in WB but had strong binding affinities in ELISA and specificities in IF. Two mAbs stained predominantly at extra cellular matrix and cell membrane of PVS of rat in IF, and they were able to discriminate PVS from blood vessel (BV) and lymphatic vessel (LV). Conclusions: 4 representative mAbs against PVS of rat were characterized by ELISA, WB, and IF. α-rPVSm3-2 and α-rPVS-m3-4, which had strong specificities in IF, can be used as a tool in discriminating PVS from other similar tissues and in elucidate biological function of PVS.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-08-01

    Abstract : Background: Uremic pruritus is a common boring complaint in patients suffering from chronic renal failure. Owing to cost and the side-effects of medications, complementary therapies are more attractive for pruritus treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of acupressure on the severity of pruritus and some laboratory parameters in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Materials and methods: The present clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients undergoing hemodialysis who were allocated in intervention, sham control, and negative control groups (30 in each group). Pressure was applied on SP6, SP10, ST36, and LI11 points in the intervention group and on ineffective points for the sham control group. The negative control group received routine care. The severity of pruritus was measured using the numeric rating scale before, two weeks, and five weeks after intervention. The laboratory parameters were measured before and after the intervention. Results: There was a significant reduction in the severity of pruritus over the course of the study in the intervention and sham control groups (p = 0.001). In addition, significant differences were observed at the end of the intervention in terms of serum phosphorus (p = 0.045) and parathyroid hormone (p = 0.004) levels between groups. Conclusion: Acupressure can improve the severity of pruritus dramatically in hemodialysis patients. It can also reduce serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone levels, which affect pruritus, significantly. Therefore, this simple and inexpensive intervention may be recommended for reducing uremic pruritus among patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-08-01

    Abstract : Background: The primo vascular system (PVS) is a novel network composed of primo nodes (PNs) and primo vessels (PVs). Currently, its anatomy is not fully understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the three-dimensional PNePV structure. Methods: Organ-surface PVS tissue was isolated from healthy and anemic rats. The tissues were analyzed by X-ray microcomputed tomography (CT), hematoxylin and eosin staining, and scanning electron microscopy. Results: From CT images, we identified one or more bundles in a PV. In the PN, the bundles were enlarged and existed in isolation and/or in anastomosis. The transverse CT images revealed four areas of distinct intensities: zero, low, intermediate, and high. The first two were considered to be the sinuses and the subvessels of the PVS and were identified in the hematoxylin and eosinestained PN sections. The enlargement of the PN from anemic rats was associated with an increase in the intermediate-intensity area. The high-intensity area demarcated the bundle and was overlapped with the mesothelial cells. In scanning electron microscopy, the PV bundles branched out, tapering down to a single bundle at some distance from the PN. Each bundle was composed of several subvessels (~5 µm). Clustered round microcells (1-25 µm), scattered flat oval cells (~15 µm), and amorphous extracellular matrix were observed on the surface of the PVS tissue. Conclusions: The results newly showed that the primo bundle is a structural unit of both PVs and PNs. A bundle was demarcated by high CT intensity and mesothelial cells and consisted of multiple subvessels. The PN bundles contained also sinuses.

    Abstract
  • Research Paper2020-10-01

    The Effects of Auriculotherapy on Shoulder Pain After a Cesarean Section

    Abedini Maryam 1, Aminzadeh Fariba 2, Manshoori Azita 2, Bakhtar Babak 3, Sadeghi Tabandeh 4, *

    Abstract : Background: Postcesarean section shoulder pain caused by constrained upper extremity movement limits the maternal activities of breastfeeding and neonatal care. Objectives: This study aims at investigating the effects of auriculotherapy on shoulder pain after a cesarean section. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 90 candidates for a cesarean section were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly allocated into control and intervention groups by the minimization method. In the intervention group, ear seeds were placed on shoulder and muscle relaxation points from two hours prior to surgery until 24 hours after it. In the control group, ear seeds were placed on placebo points. Shoulder pain was assessed on a numerical pain scale in 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups 1 and 6 hours after surgery. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups 24 hours after surgery and the mean pain score was lower in the intervention group (independent t-test, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of auriculotherapy is recommended for the prevention and alleviation of shoulder pain after a cesarean section.

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  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Acupuncture as a Complementary Therapy for Cancer Care: Acceptability and Preferences of Patients and Informal Caregivers

    Laura Tack1,2, Tessa Lefebvre1,2, Virginie Blieck3, Lieselot Cool1, Hans Pottel5, Koen Van Eygen4, Sofie Derijcke6, Philippe Vergauwe7, Patricia Schofield8, Rebecca Chandler9, Pauline Lane9, Tom Boterberg2, Philip R. Debruyne1,10,*

    Abstract : Background: Acupuncture can effectively manage cancer-related side effects, for both patients undergoing treatment and for cancer survivors. It may also be effective in managing physiological and psychological symptoms common among informal caregivers of cancer patients. Objectives: The aim of this survey was to explore the acceptability and preferences of cancer patients, cancer survivors, and their informal caregivers in relation to acupuncture. Methods: The survey was conducted from 20th November to 27th November 2018. The questionnaire was developed to explore acceptability and preferences, including motivation, symptoms to be addressed, and practical issues (location, cost, etc.), in relation to acupuncture. Results: The survey response rate was 94.5% in cancer patients and cancer survivors and 100% in caregivers. Acceptability of acupuncture was 34.5% (n = 40/116) and 48.0% (n = 26/54) in cancer patients and caregivers, respectively. About 52.5% (n = 21/40) of patients preferred to undergo acupuncture at the day center clinic, whereas caregivers had no specific preference. Patients and cancer survivors would use acupuncture for symptoms of fatigue (60%), listlessness (57.5%), and pain (47.5%). Informal caregivers expressed an interest in using acupuncture for their pain, stress, and sleeping difficulties 48.0% (n = 26/54). Conclusion: Cancer patients, cancer survivors, and informal caregivers would accept acupuncture as a complementary therapy. This openness and preference to acupuncture provide the foundations for this complementary therapy to be incorporated into holistic and supportive cancer care, both for patients and those supporting them.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-06-01

    Effectiveness of Acupuncture in Dental Surgery: A Randomized, Crossover, Controlled Trial

    Maria L.B. Gil 1, *, Luide M.R.F. Marinho 2, Márcio de Moraes 2, Ronaldo S. Wada 1, Francisco C. Groppo 3, Jorge E. Sato 4, Maria L.R. de Sousa 1, **

    Abstract : Objectives: The objective of this crossover clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Energy Regulation with Acupuncture in clinical occurrences in impacted lower third molar surgeries. Methods: The sample consisted of 22 patients with two impacted third molars, in symmetrical position; divided into two groups: Test Group (TG) with Real Energy Regulation Group and Sham Group (SG) with Acupuncture without Energy Regulation function. The extraction was performed 30 days apart. Energy flow (Ryodoraku Method) and energy regulation performed before extraction were measured. Heart Rate (HR) and Blood Pressure (BP) were evaluated before and after energy regulation and after surgery, residual edema was measured by facial measurements (angle of the mandible to tragus (A-T); angle of the mandible to labial commissure (A-LC); angle of the mandible to the wing of the nose (A-WN); angle of the mandible to the corner of the eye (A-CE); angle of the mandible to the chin (A-C); and mouth opening by the interincisal distance, before and after seven days of surgery. To quantify intraoperative bleeding (ml), blood was aspirated along with the saline solution using a portable vacuum pump adaptor. The amount of saline solution used was subtracted from the final amount of aspirated fluid. Results: Mean of bleeding was lower in TG (p = 0.0392). There were significant differences between groups in facial distances: A-LC (p = 0.010), A-WN (p = 0.030) and A-C (p = 0.008). Conclusion: Energy regulation with real acupuncture was effective in reducing postoperative residual edema and intraoperative bleeding.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-06-01

    Electroacupuncture Promotes Neural Proliferation in Hippocampus of Perimenopausal Depression Rats via Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway

    Qin Jing , Lu Ren*, †, Xue Deng, Nan Zhang, Martin Fu, Ge Wang, Xi-Rong Jiang, Shu-Ru Lin, Cai-Rong Ming

    Abstract : Background and Objective: Perimenopausal depression is caused by the impaired function of the ovarium before menopause and with a series of symptoms. Electroacupuncture (EA) therapy has been demonstrated to improve clinically depression. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic activity remains unknown. This study aimed to investigat the effects of EA treatment on the hippocampal neural proliferation through Wnt signaling pathway. Methods: Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) combined with bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) were used to establish a rat model of perimenopausal depression. The open field test (OFT) and sucrose preference test (SPT) were used to assess depression-like behaviors in rats. ELISAs were used to measure estrogen (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels in the serum. RT-PCR and Western blot assay were utilized for measuring the mRNA expressions and protein expressions of GSK-3β/β-catenin. Results: Four-week EA treatment at three points including “Shenshu” (BL23), “Baihui” (GV20) and “Sanyinjiao” (SP6) simultaneously ameliorated depression-like behaviors in rats with CUMS and OVX, whereas rescued the decreased serum level of E2 and prevented the increased serum levels of GnRH and LH. EA treatment ameliorated CUMS and OVX-induced alterations of glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK3b) and β-catenin mRNA levels, β-catenin and phosphorylated β-catenin (p-β-catenin) protein levels. Conclusions: The results showed that EA treatment promoted hippocampal neural proliferation in perimenopausal depression rats via activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, indicating that EA may represent an efficacious therapy for perimenopausal depression.

    Abstract
  • Letter to the Editor2021-10-31
    JAMS

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
April, 2022
Vol.15 No.2

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2020-12-01

    Abstract : Background: Anthropometric and anatomical Chinese inch measurement (CUN) systems are useful in understanding the location of acupoints; however, locating acupoints is challenging. Objectives: The study aimed to locate LI4 and LI6, to measure differences and similarities in body dimensions based on sex using anthropometric and CUN systems, and to observe the relationship between f-cun and b-cun. Methods: 25 forearms and hands from 16 embalmed cadavers had body dimensions measured using anthropometric and CUN systems. LI4 and LI6 were located using a combination of both systems. Data were compiled and calculated to observe any variation in means and ranges. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. Results: LI4 was found on the skin at the lateral border of the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was found 3 cun or 74 ± 8 mm from LI5. Differences were observed between male and female cadavers and a large difference between f-cun and b-cun measurements of 1.5 to 3 cun. There were positive correlations between several body dimensions observed. Conclusions: LI4 was located on the dorsum of the hand, radial to the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was located 3 cun from LI5 with an error of 1 to ½ cun variation. The differences in f-cun and bcun in isolating LI6 seem to account for this error. Future studies using cadavers may need to take this error into consideration for variation and measuring differences.

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  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Comparison of the Effects of Electroacupuncture and Melatonin on Nerve Regeneration in Experimentally Nerve-Damaged Rats

    Yasemin Özkan1,*, Mehmet Turgut2, Yasemin Turan1, Mehmet Dinçer Bilgin3, Sinem Sari4, Mustafa Yilmaz3, Yiğit Uyanikgil5, Mahmut Alp Kiliç3, Derya Tanriöver5, Zehra Seznur Kasar1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(5): 176-182 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.5.176

    Abstract : Background: Development of methods to accelerate nerve regeneration in peripheral nerve damage is important. Electroacupuncture is a new therapeutic method that combines traditional acupuncture with modern electrotherapy. Melatonin has been shown to reduce nerve damage. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine and compare the therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture and melatonin on rat sciatic nerve injury. Methods: A total of 56 adult male Wistar Albino rats were divided into four study groups with 14 animals in each group: intact control (group I), subcutaneous saline (group II), subcutaneous melatonin (group III), and electroacupuncture (group IV). Surgical procedure including unilateral (right) sciatic nerve injury was applied to groups II, III, and IV. Saline and melatonin started immediately after surgery for six weeks, while electroacupuncture was given two weeks after surgery for 3 weeks. Functional and histological assessments were used as outcome measurements. Results: Sciatic nerve damage caused a significant decrease in nerve conduction velocity. Both electroacupuncture treatment and melatonin treatment significantly increased the nerve conduction velocity. Both sciatic functional recovery and histological regeneration were faster in these treatment groups compared to the saline. However, no significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups. Conclusion: Electroacupuncture and melatonin are promising alternative treatment strategies for peripheral nerve damage and can be examined in detail in future studies.

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  • Research Article2020-12-01

    Abstract : Background: Despite the adverse consequences of poor sleep during pregnancy, relatively few safe interventions exist for improving sleep among pregnant women. Nonpharmacological interventions are increasingly gaining acceptance. However, the effects of acupressure and acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ACUTENS) have not been widely reported. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, otherwise known as ACUTENS, and acupressure on sleep quality among pregnant women. Methods: Purposive sampling of 42 pregnant women with sleep disorders was conducted, and the participants were randomized into 3 groups, i.e., acupressure, ACUTENS, and usual care. interventions, which were carried out twice weekly for six weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index was used to determine the overall sleep quality. Results: The preintervention scores of sleep quality were 12.5 (3.75), 12.5 (4.0), and 13.0 (3.5) in the ACUTENS, acupressure, and usual care groups, respectively. The KruskaleWallis test did not show any significant difference in the preintervention sleep quality scores (H = 0.379, p = 0.827). Participants in the usual care group recorded the least improvement, with a score of 5.0 (2.25), the ACUTENS group recorded a score of 4.5 (3.0), and the greatest improvement was recorded in the acupressure group, with a score of 4.0 (2.2) after 6 weeks of intervention. The KruskaleWallis test did not show any significant difference in the postintervention sleep quality scores among the 3 groups (H = 0.666, p = 0.717). Conclusion: This study showed that ACUTENS and acupressure as an adjunct to usual care are not more effective than usual care alone in improving sleep quality among pregnant women.

    Abstract
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  • Research Article2021-06-30
    JAMS

    Treatment of Masticatory Muscle Pain with Acupuncture: Is It Necessary to Associate with Occlusal Splints?

    Crischina Branco Marques Sant’Anna, Fernanda Pereira de Caxias, Paulo Renato Junqueira Zuim, Marcella Santos Januzzi*, Emily Viviane Freitas da Silva, Karina Helga Leal Turcio
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(3): 89-94 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.3.89

    Abstract : Background: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are treated by different modalities including splints, physiotherapy, and acupuncture. Although all of these offer evidencebased benefits to the patients, avoiding overtreatment is of paramount importance. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of muscle pain treatment with acupuncture combined with or without occlusal splints. Methods: Recruited patients were allocated to G1 (acupuncture) and G2 (acupuncture and occlusal splint) groups and treated in four consecutive weekly sessions (P1, P2, P3, and P4). The reported pain (RP) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the masseter and temporalis muscles were assessed before and after each session. Results: RP decreased after each session in G1, except at P4. In G2, the RP decreased only after the first session, and the PPT did not vary. Conclusion: The assessed treatments did not influence the PPT levels of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Our findings suggest that occlusal splints may not be mandatory along with the acupuncture treatment.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-02-28

    Abstract : Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is estimated to be one of the most common diseases affecting the liver because of its high prevalence worldwide. Abnormal lipid profile between NAFLD patients has been reported in several studies. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the lipid profile response to electroacupuncture in NAFLD patients. Methods: A total of 60 female patients with NAFLD were included in the study with ages ranged from (30-55) years old. They were divided equally into two groups, group A received electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at points of; LR14, LR3, ST36, and GB34. And group B received sham acupuncture application in non-acupuncture points. The demographic data and lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL), serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were recorded before and after the study. Results: The study results revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of LDL, TC, TG after 6 weeks of non-interrupted treatment sessions in group A, However HDL showed no significant improvement (p > 0.05). A significant difference was found between posttreatment values of LDL, TC, and TG between both groups. Conclusion: Electroacupuncture can be an effective, simple, and applicable method for the improvement of elevated lipid profiles in NAFLD patients.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-12-31

    Effect of Dry Cupping Therapy on Pain and Functional Disability in Persistent Non-Specific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Marianna de Melo Salemi1,*, Vanessa Maria da Silva Alves Gomes1, Laylla Marjorye Rebouças Bezerra1, Thania Maion de Souza Melo1, Geisa Guimarães de Alencar1, Iracema Hermes Pires de Mélo Montenegro2, Alessandra Paula de Melo Calado3, Eduardo José Nepomuceno Montenegro1, Gisela Rocha de Siqueira1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(6): 219-230 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.6.219

    Abstract : Background: Cupping therapy is used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including low back pain.Objectives: The study assessed the effects of dry cupping on pain and functional disability from persistent nonspecific low back pain. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial, where participants were allocated to a cupping therapy (n = 19) or sham (n = 18) group, for five 10-minute sessions of cupping therapy, twice a week, to stimulate the acupoints related to low back pain (GV4, BL23, BL24, BL25, and BL30, BL40 and BL58) and emotional aspects (HT3 and ST36). All participants were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and follow up (a finalization period of four weeks) using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Groups were compared using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and the effect size was calculated using Cohen̓s d. Results: The cupping therapy group presented a lower mean VAS when compared to the sham, at post-treatment (mean difference: –2.36; standard error [SE]: 0.58; p < 0.001; “large” effect size: –0.94) and follow up (mean difference: –1.71; SE: 0.81; p < 0.042; ‘large’ effect size: –0.83). The cupping therapy group presented a lower mean ODI when compared to the sham post-treatment (mean difference: –4.68; SE: 1.85; p: 0.017; ‘large’ effect size: –0.87), although in follow-up, there was no difference between the groups (mean difference: 4.16; SE: 2.97; p: 0.17; “medium” effect size: –0.70). Conclusion: Dry cupping was more effective in improving pain and functional disability in people with persistent nonspecific low back pain when compared to the sham.

    Abstract
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