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  • Letter to the Editor2021-02-28
  • Review Article2022-02-28

    Abstract : The primo vascular system (PVS) is of great interest to scientists in the last few years. The PVS plays a role in stem cell migration, immune function, erythropoiesis, tissue regeneration, and cancer metastasis. Discovered by Bong Han Kim in 1960, the PVS was described as a new, independent system that is distributed in the body of different animals. Since then, several cells have been discovered as important constituents of the PVS. Endothelial cells are hallmarks for the identification of the PVS, as they line the sinuses of the primo vessels and are characterized by their arrangement of rod-shaped nuclei in a parallel, broken-line fashion along the primo vessels. Immune cells as mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes are also hallmarks for the identification of the PVS. One of the most interesting cells in the PVS are p-microcells. Primo nodes are a stem cell niche due to their p-microcells content, which express stem cell biomarkers CD133 and Oct 4. Mature erythrocytes and hematopoietic stem cells have also been observed in the PVS. Hematopoietic stem cells were observed in the PVS. Hematopoietic Stem Cells are the source of the cellular component of blood. Additionally, adrenaline and noradrenaline-producing cells, mesothelial cells, and smooth-muscle-like cells have also been described in the PVS.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Acupuncture as a Complementary Therapy for Cancer Care: Acceptability and Preferences of Patients and Informal Caregivers

    Laura Tack1,2, Tessa Lefebvre1,2, Virginie Blieck3, Lieselot Cool1, Hans Pottel5, Koen Van Eygen4, Sofie Derijcke6, Philippe Vergauwe7, Patricia Schofield8, Rebecca Chandler9, Pauline Lane9, Tom Boterberg2, Philip R. Debruyne1,10,*

    Abstract : Background: Acupuncture can effectively manage cancer-related side effects, for both patients undergoing treatment and for cancer survivors. It may also be effective in managing physiological and psychological symptoms common among informal caregivers of cancer patients. Objectives: The aim of this survey was to explore the acceptability and preferences of cancer patients, cancer survivors, and their informal caregivers in relation to acupuncture. Methods: The survey was conducted from 20th November to 27th November 2018. The questionnaire was developed to explore acceptability and preferences, including motivation, symptoms to be addressed, and practical issues (location, cost, etc.), in relation to acupuncture. Results: The survey response rate was 94.5% in cancer patients and cancer survivors and 100% in caregivers. Acceptability of acupuncture was 34.5% (n = 40/116) and 48.0% (n = 26/54) in cancer patients and caregivers, respectively. About 52.5% (n = 21/40) of patients preferred to undergo acupuncture at the day center clinic, whereas caregivers had no specific preference. Patients and cancer survivors would use acupuncture for symptoms of fatigue (60%), listlessness (57.5%), and pain (47.5%). Informal caregivers expressed an interest in using acupuncture for their pain, stress, and sleeping difficulties 48.0% (n = 26/54). Conclusion: Cancer patients, cancer survivors, and informal caregivers would accept acupuncture as a complementary therapy. This openness and preference to acupuncture provide the foundations for this complementary therapy to be incorporated into holistic and supportive cancer care, both for patients and those supporting them.

    Abstract
  • Case Report2022-08-31

    Treatment of Lumbosacral Radiculopathy with Acupuncture and Medical Herbs: Four Case Reports

    Han Chae1, Yoona Oh2, Ji Won Choi2, Soo Kwang An1, Yeon Hak Kim2, Jun Hwan Lee4,5, Eunseok Kim2,3, Byung Ryul Lee2,3, Gi Young Yang2,3,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 264-272 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.264

    Abstract : Lumbosacral radiculopathy (LR) is a musculoskeletal disorder or pain syndrome that is generally linked to the compression or irritation of the nerve root. There is a growing interest in the development of efficient acupuncture-based treatments for LR comparable to western medicine. Structured traditional Korean medical treatments including intensified acupuncture stimulus on the EX-B2 point using the G-shaped posture modified from the sitting posture were applied to four LR patients, and the outcomes were evaluated based on objective clinical endpoints including a numeric rating scale (NRS), the Oswestry disability index (ODI), the manual muscle test (MMT), neurological symptoms, and plantar photography. Patients showed improvements in NRS, ODI, MMT, and neurological symptoms without adverse effects during hospitalization and follow-up visits. Moreover, we observed substantial dissolvement of hyperkeratinization and parchedness of the soles of the feet, which was not reported previously. These four cases demonstrate the clinical usefulness of traditional medicine and the diagnostic applicability of plantar photography. However, further randomized controlled trials are required to confirm our findings.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-08-31

    Application of Auriculotherapy for Post-Burn Scar Syndrome in Young Adults with Major Burns

    Cha-Chun Chen1,2,3, San-Pei Chen4, Shu-Yu Lyu3, Chung-Hua Hsu2,5,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(4): 127-136 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.4.127

    Abstract : Background: A burn scar is a type of hypertrophic scar that can cause significant clinical symptoms, discomfort, and post-burn scar (PBS) syndrome in up to 77% of patients with burn injuries. Medication and rehabilitation are rarely effective at managing patient discomfort, and both laser and surgical interventions are postponed until the scar stabilizes and discomfort is tolerable. Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture among burn victims from the Formosa Color Dust Explosion in Taiwan. Methods: We enrolled 31 victims of the 2016 Formosa Color Dust Explosion who met the study inclusion criteria. The intervention involved placement of magnetic beads over the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints on one ear. Patients performed selfmassage five times per day, and both magnet beads were removed between the fifth and seventh days during the sessions. Several evaluation tools were used to assess clinical symptoms: the visual analogue scale for pain assessment, Burn Man Itch Scale for perceived patient itchiness, 5-D Pruritus Scale for sleep quality, and heart rate variability (HRV) for effects on the autonomic nervous system. Results: The clinical symptoms were significantly decreased following the intervention, but the effect did not endure. The normal-to-normal heart rate interval, heart rate analysis abnormalities, and very low frequency heart rate were significantly decreased among patients with abnormal HRV (SD < 40) following treatment. Conclusion: Stimulation of the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints may effectively reduce pain, itchiness, and sleep disturbances among patients with PBS syndrome.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Introduction: Is Primo Vascular System (PVS) a paradox? Finding the connection between PVS as a carrier of information and the body’s reactions at the micro and macro levels will be the starting point in understanding the meaning of life as such. Before the past of PVS knowledge: The initial phase of medicine in all cultures is reduced to the transfer of specific energy by special pathways throughout the body! This is the case in China, India, Japan, Korea, Tibet, etc. Undoubtedly, the five articles by B. H. Kim published in the early 1960s are considered to be the past of PVS. Strange present: PVS studies after 2002 are accepted as a present. Most of the articles on the topic are in journals with editors-in-chief originating and/or accepting the achievements of Eastern medicine. Is the science of PVS local since its research is in journals that publish mainly articles on Eastern medicine? Why few of the articles concerning PVS are in Western medicine journals? PVS: after the future or some conclusions and proposals: All substances, objects, biological objects generate a weak electromagnetic radiation typical for each of them which is a passport of the information. PVS has all the data to be the main carrier of information. Information medicine and Quantum Biology can serve as a basis for medicine and biomedical sciences, and it should explain the processes that exist for the change of DNA and organisms in

    Abstract
  • Abstract : The purpose of this paper is to compare the biological research carried out in North Korea with the modern outcomes in the same field, from a historical perspective. In the 1960s, the group led by Bong-Han Kim asserted the existence of a fundamental circulatory system in the human body. Their findings were introduced in five papers as well as in the newspaper Rodong Sinmun. The size of the group, the range of equipment, and their findings expanded gradually, and the final paper on blood cells would be only published one of over sixty papers reported at that time. In the five papers, some unclear and inconsistent contents were found. Meanwhile, in the 2000s, PVS (primo vascular system) researchers have published over one hundred papers to prove the existence of this novel system. Some trends have emerged in approximately sixty papers as follows: The research on the identification of the anatomical and histological characteristics has gradually expanded to encompass the system’s own functioning. Also, new visual results (e.g. before and after dyeing, and its comparison with blood clots) and the exploration of possible medical applications (e.g. cancer metastasis channels or stem cells location) have been proposed. However, it is difficult to identify papers which comprehensively represented the elements claimed by Bong-Han Kim’s group. In addition, papers have been published more in alternative or Oriental medicine journals than in Western biomedical journals. It seems necessary to report more existence of the system in one laboratory animal and in more influential journals.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2022-04-30

    Participation of Potential Transient Receptors in the Antinociceptive Effect of Pharmacopuncture

    Isabella de Paula Ribeiro Argôlo1,*, Julia Risso Parisi2, Josie Resende Torres da Silva1, Marcelo Lourenço da Silva1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(2): 105-113 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.2.105

    Abstract : Background: Despite the widespread clinical use of acupuncture in painful situations, the use of this treatment should be further clarified. Nociception is mediated by the activation of nociceptors, such as transient receptor potentials (TRPs). The family of TRPs includes TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1, which can be stimulated by substances such as capsaicin, menthol, and methyl salicylate, respectively.Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the role of TRPs in antinociception via the administration of agonists of these receptors in the Zusanli acupoint (ST36) in models of inflammatory, acute, and neuropathic pain.Methods: Male Wistar rats were used for this experiment. All rats received a subcutaneous injection of TRP agonists (capsaicin, menthol, or methyl salicylate) in ST36; saline was injected as control. Nociception was evaluated using the electronic mechanical threshold test and tail-flick test before the administration of complete Freund’s adjunct or chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve and after the administration of TRP agonists. Results: Nociception was found to be attenuated after treatment with TRP agonists. The administration of different doses (0.03, 0.3, and 3.0 μg/20 μL) of capsaicin, menthol, and methyl salicylate in the different pain models (neuropathic, inflammatory, and nociceptive) induced antinociception in most of the evaluated time points.Conclusion: Based on the findings, we suggest that the activation of TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1 receptors results in the antinociceptive effect of the stimulation of the ST36 acupoint. Thus, TRP receptors may present a new therapeutic opportunity for the control of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    Abstract
  • Letter to the Editor2021-10-31
    JAMS

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
December, 2022
Vol.15 No.6

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Abstract : Background: Migraine is a very common neurobiological headache disorder caused by an increased irritability of the central nervous system. Acupuncture as a complementary medicine has been suggested as one of the treatments for migraine headaches; however, the findings are conflicting. Objectives: Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acupuncture with auricular semi-permanent (ASP) needles on migraine headaches. Methods: In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 80 patients with migraine were selected and divided into two groups. The intervention group was treated with auricular ASP needles in the active points of the ear, and the control group only received routine treatments. Pain score, frequency of migraine headaches, duration of headaches, severity of nausea and vomiting, and patient satisfaction were compared between the two groups for four weeks after the intervention. Results: Our results showed that the level of pain (4.72 ± 2.53, 2.13 ± 1.76 times) and the frequency of migraine headaches (8.98 ± 8.58 hours) from the second week after the intervention in the ASP group were much lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). However, pain incidence and ear inflammation in the ASP group were negligible and did not differ significantly from those in the control group (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Auricular acupuncture could be considered as a promising complementary therapy along with other standard migraine therapies for the prevention and treatment of migraine headaches.

    Abstract
  • Clinical Study Protocol2021-04-30

    A Study on the Effects of Dry Needling in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Spasticity: Protocol of a Randomized Waitlist-Controlled Trial

    Omid Motamedzadeh1,2, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari1,2,3,*, Soofia Naghdi1,2, Amirreza Azimi4, Ashraf Mahmoudzadeh5, Sandra Calvo6, Pablo Herrero7

    Abstract : Background: Spasticity is a common symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dry needling (DN) has been considered a useful method for the treatment of spasticity; however, there are no studies on the effects of DN on spasticity in patients with MS. We propose a study protocol aiming to investigate the effects of DN on spasticity in patients with MS. Methods: MS patients with plantar flexor spasticity will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to the DN group, where they will be receiving a single session of DN, one minute for each head of gastrocnemius muscle, or to the waiting list control group with no intervention. Primary outcome measures are the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) for gastrocnemius spasticity, passive resistive torque, and podography for foot pressure distribution. The ankle active and passive range of dorsiflexion and Timed Up and Go tests are the secondary outcome measures. All outcomes will be measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and one week later. A mixed-model, general linear model, and two-way repeated-measures ANOVA will be used to compare the quantitative variables between groups and within groups at the measurement time points. The MAS ordinal measure of spasticity will be compared between groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and both the Friedman test and Wilcoxon test will be used for within-group changes. Discussion: This study will provide primary evidence on the effects of DN on gastrocnemius muscle spasticity and gait in patients with MS. Trial registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT): IRCT20190617043918N1.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2022-02-28

    GB20 Pharmacopuncture As a Potential Method for Brain Drug Delivery via the Perivascular Spaces

    Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya1,2,*, Inna Blokhina2, Nikita Navolokin2,3, Arina Evsukova2, Georgy Karandin2, Alexander Khorovodov2, Andrey Terskov2, Ivan Fedosov2, Alexander Dubrovsky2, Maria Tzoy2, Vasily Ageev2, Ilana Agranovich2, Valeria Telnova2, Anna Tsven2, Jürgen Kurths1,2,4
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(1): 43-49 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.1.43

    Abstract : Background: The development of new methods of drug brain delivery is a crucial step for the effective therapy of the brain diseases. Pharma- and acupuncture are the forms of alternative therapy of the brain pathology, including an increase in the permeability of blood-brain barrier. However, the mechanisms of pharma- and acupuncture-mediated effects on the brain physiology remain not fully understood. Results: This pilot study on healthy mice clearly demonstrates the Evans Blue spreading in the mouse head and in the brain via the perivascular spaces (PVSs) of the trigeminal structure and the cribriform plate after the dye injection into the Feng Chi point (Galbladder 20, GB20). Conclusion: These results suggest that pharmacopuncture at GB20 can be a perspective method for brain drug delivery via PVSs.

    Abstract
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  • Research Article2021-06-30

    Abstract : Background: Nursing students experience clinical stress frequently and severely. The application of acupressure is reported to be effective in stress management.Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the effects of acupressure on reducing the stress of nursing students in clinical practice. Methods: This study was carried out using a single-blind randomized controlled experimental design. The experimental and control groups were randomly determined by using a previously prepared randomization checklist. A Participant Information Form, VAS, and the State Anxiety Inventory were applied to all students before practice. Acupressure was performed on the HT7 point and Yintang point (EX-HN3), respectively, every five minutes for a total of 30 minutes in the experimental group. Results: The level of stress experienced by the students in the experimental group before the intervention according to VAS was 6.95 ± 1.57, and it was determined as 2.82 ± 1.94 after the third application (p < 0.05). The mean clinical stress score before the application was 46.54 ± 3.81, and after the 3rd week of application, it was 25.15 ± 5.26 (p < 0.05). It was observed that the students' stress levels decreased in all measurements made after the acupressure intervention. Conclusion: This study determined that acupressure effectively reduces the stress levels of nursing students, and it may be applied in clinical stress management.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-12-31

    Mechanisms of Electroacupuncture Pretreatment in Alleviating Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Interactions between the Cerebellar Fastigial Nucleus and Lateral Hypothalamic Area

    Qing Yu1,2, Li-bin Wu1, Fan Zhang1, Xiao-tong Wei1, Pian-pian Chen1, Shuai-ya Wang1, Mei-yi Cai1, Qi Shu1, Liao-yuan Li1, Zi-jian Wu2,3, Rong-lin Cai2,3,*, Ling Hu2,3,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(6): 207-218 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.6.207

    Abstract : Background: Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is an important mechanism of post-myocardial infarction injury and a main cause of death in patients with ischemic heart disease. Electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment is effective for the prevention and treatment of MIRI, but mechanisms mediating the effects of cardiovascular disease EA treatments remain unclear.Objectives: To determine whether the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) are involved in the protective effects of EA stimulation on MIRI. Methods: EA pretreatment was performed for 7 days before the establishment of the MIRI model. ST-segment changes on electrocardiograms were recorded and the Curtis–Walker arrhythmia score was used to evaluate changes in reperfusion injury. Hematoxylin–eosin staining was applied to evaluate the pathological and morphological changes in myocardial tissue. c-fos expression in the LHA and FN was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Glutamic (Glu) and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical method. Results: EA pretreatment reduced ST-segment elevation, arrhythmia scores, and morphological changes in MIRI myocardial cells in rats, and decreased the c-fos protein expression in LHA/FN nuclei. MIRI was associated with an imbalance between GABA and Glu levels, whereas EA pretreatment increased GABA levels and decreased Glu levels in the LHA/FN. Conclusion: FN and LHA are involved in the EA-mediated attenuation of MIRI. Pretreatment with EA plays a protective role in the myocardium by regulating Glu and GABA release in the LHA and FN.

    Abstract
  • Perspective Article2022-08-31

    Correlation Between the Sinew Channels with the Myofascial System, Pathology, and Treatment

    Pablo Nava Jaimes*, Alejandro Martínez Reyes, Daniel García Lara, Abel Cristian Patiño Coyuca
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 201-213 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.201

    Abstract : The sinew channels are a tendon and muscle network, and their description is based on the observation presented on the Huangdi Neijing Ling Shu. However, the myofascial system is an uninterrupted series of connective tissue that is comprised of layers that run in different directions. The similarities on these pathways are compared, such as a brief description on the myofascial pain syndrome and its similitude with the Impediment disorder from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Furthermore, we discuss the treatment of these conditions from a Traditional Chinese Medicine perspective.

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