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  • Review Article2022-02-28

    Abstract : The primo vascular system (PVS) is of great interest to scientists in the last few years. The PVS plays a role in stem cell migration, immune function, erythropoiesis, tissue regeneration, and cancer metastasis. Discovered by Bong Han Kim in 1960, the PVS was described as a new, independent system that is distributed in the body of different animals. Since then, several cells have been discovered as important constituents of the PVS. Endothelial cells are hallmarks for the identification of the PVS, as they line the sinuses of the primo vessels and are characterized by their arrangement of rod-shaped nuclei in a parallel, broken-line fashion along the primo vessels. Immune cells as mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes are also hallmarks for the identification of the PVS. One of the most interesting cells in the PVS are p-microcells. Primo nodes are a stem cell niche due to their p-microcells content, which express stem cell biomarkers CD133 and Oct 4. Mature erythrocytes and hematopoietic stem cells have also been observed in the PVS. Hematopoietic stem cells were observed in the PVS. Hematopoietic Stem Cells are the source of the cellular component of blood. Additionally, adrenaline and noradrenaline-producing cells, mesothelial cells, and smooth-muscle-like cells have also been described in the PVS.

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  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Comparison of the Effects of Electroacupuncture and Melatonin on Nerve Regeneration in Experimentally Nerve-Damaged Rats

    Yasemin Özkan1,*, Mehmet Turgut2, Yasemin Turan1, Mehmet Dinçer Bilgin3, Sinem Sari4, Mustafa Yilmaz3, Yiğit Uyanikgil5, Mahmut Alp Kiliç3, Derya Tanriöver5, Zehra Seznur Kasar1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(5): 176-182 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.5.176

    Abstract : Background: Development of methods to accelerate nerve regeneration in peripheral nerve damage is important. Electroacupuncture is a new therapeutic method that combines traditional acupuncture with modern electrotherapy. Melatonin has been shown to reduce nerve damage. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine and compare the therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture and melatonin on rat sciatic nerve injury. Methods: A total of 56 adult male Wistar Albino rats were divided into four study groups with 14 animals in each group: intact control (group I), subcutaneous saline (group II), subcutaneous melatonin (group III), and electroacupuncture (group IV). Surgical procedure including unilateral (right) sciatic nerve injury was applied to groups II, III, and IV. Saline and melatonin started immediately after surgery for six weeks, while electroacupuncture was given two weeks after surgery for 3 weeks. Functional and histological assessments were used as outcome measurements. Results: Sciatic nerve damage caused a significant decrease in nerve conduction velocity. Both electroacupuncture treatment and melatonin treatment significantly increased the nerve conduction velocity. Both sciatic functional recovery and histological regeneration were faster in these treatment groups compared to the saline. However, no significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups. Conclusion: Electroacupuncture and melatonin are promising alternative treatment strategies for peripheral nerve damage and can be examined in detail in future studies.

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  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Visible Meridian Phenomena after Acupuncture: A Series of Case Reports

    Nikolay Dimitrov1, Nikola Tomov2, Dimitrinka Atanasova1,3,*, Stiliyan Iliev1, Tatyana Tomova4, Dimitar Sivrev1, Zoya Goranova4

    Abstract : Background: In accordance with the meridian theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), meridian phenomena are observed along the course of a meridian following acupuncture. Their visible manifestations include alterations in the color (reddening or whitening) of the skin as well as papule and vesicle formation. Objectives: The aim of the present work is to report a series of visible meridian phenomena manifested in human subjects and to correlate them to TCM concepts. A total of 1,200 patients, on whom classical acupuncture (with standard single-use needles without electrostimulation or moxibustion) was applied, were carefully observed and documented. Methods: Visible meridian phenomena were photographed using standard photographical equipment and compared to classical acupuncture channels used by TCM. Results: Ten patients (5 male, 5 female) exhibited visible meridian phenomena. Lines, concurring with the meridians, were observed: white lines in seven cases and red lines in three cases. The duration of the two kinds of phenomena was different. White lines remained visible for a shorter period (10-15 min), whereas red lines were seen for up to one hour after needle removal. Conclusion: These observations indicate that visible meridian phenomena following acupuncture are objective, albeit rare, findings that coincide with the acupuncture channels described in the classical works of TCM. The presence of such phenomena provides a new insight into the concept of meridians and explains the development of the idea in its historical context.

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  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation of PC5 and PC6 Acupoints Increases Sympathovagal Balance but Not Oxidative Stress in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Fernando Gomes de Jesus1,2, Alice Pereira Duque1,2, Carole Sant'ana Massolar1, Giselle Pinto de Faria Lopes1, Ana Carolina de Azevedo Carvalho3, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano2,4, Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Junior1,2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(5): 183-192 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.5.183

    Abstract : Background: Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) improves autonomic balance and reduces oxidative stress in subjects with chronic diseases, that decreases the risk of low-grade chronic inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. However, these beneficial effects have never been demonstrated in healthy subjects. Objectives: To evaluate the acute effects of TEAS on autonomic balance and oxidative stress of healthy subjects. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with male healthy subjects (18-30 years old), randomly allocated to control (no intervention; n = 14), placebo (placebo intervention; n = 14) and TEAS group (at PC5 and PC6 acupoints; n = 13). The protocol consisted of accommodation (20 min), intervention (40 min), and recovery (30 min) periods. The acute effects of TEAS on hemodynamics were studied through measurements of heart rate, blood pressure and double product; on the autonomic nervous system by assessing heart rate variability; and on oxidative stress by quantifying reactive oxygen species in saliva samples, collected at the end of each period. Results: TEAS increased heart rate and double-product compared to control and placebo groups (p < 0.01). Moreover, TEAS increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic tonus, increasing the sympathovagal balance compared to the control and placebo groups. However, TEAS exerted no effect on oxidative stress in saliva samples. Conclusion: In healthy subjects, TEAS at PC5 and PC6 acupoints acutely improved autonomic balance, increasing sympathetic and reducing parasympathetic tonus, reflecting little improvement on hemodynamic responses. Whether it could be used as a cardioprotective strategy remains uncertain since it exerted no effect on oxidative stress.

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  • Abstract : A 24-year-old horse was presented with a clinical history of anaemia, large intestine impaction and hind limb weakness. Loss of body weight was also reported. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were low and piroplasmosis test was negative. Nasogastric intubation with laxative agents was performed and 50 ml of a red blood-cell-supplement was given daily during a month. An assessment following Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (TCVM) principles was performed after the last episode of large intestine impaction. A swollen, pale and wet tongue was observed. A superficial, weak pulse combined punctually with a slippery pulse was detected on the right side. The pulse on the left side was very thin. BL18, BL20 and BL23 were the most sensitive acupoints on the right side. BL18 and BL23 were the most sensitive on the left. TCVM diagnosis was Qi/Yang Kidney Deficiency, Spleen Qi Deficiency with Stagnation and Blood Deficiency. It received acupuncture at Bai-Hui, KI3, KI7, KI10, BL23, GB39, ST36, BL17 and acupressure at SP10. The client reported a significant improvement after treatment and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were normal. KI3, ST36, BL39 acupoints were treated 14 days later. The outcome was favourable and one acupuncture session per month was recommended. No previous case reports in equines have been documented with a combination of blood, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems in the same episode. This case is an example of an integrative approach to investigate the origin and the interdependent relation between body systems.

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  • Research Article2021-08-31

    Application of Auriculotherapy for Post-Burn Scar Syndrome in Young Adults with Major Burns

    Cha-Chun Chen1,2,3, San-Pei Chen4, Shu-Yu Lyu3, Chung-Hua Hsu2,5,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(4): 127-136 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.4.127

    Abstract : Background: A burn scar is a type of hypertrophic scar that can cause significant clinical symptoms, discomfort, and post-burn scar (PBS) syndrome in up to 77% of patients with burn injuries. Medication and rehabilitation are rarely effective at managing patient discomfort, and both laser and surgical interventions are postponed until the scar stabilizes and discomfort is tolerable. Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture among burn victims from the Formosa Color Dust Explosion in Taiwan. Methods: We enrolled 31 victims of the 2016 Formosa Color Dust Explosion who met the study inclusion criteria. The intervention involved placement of magnetic beads over the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints on one ear. Patients performed selfmassage five times per day, and both magnet beads were removed between the fifth and seventh days during the sessions. Several evaluation tools were used to assess clinical symptoms: the visual analogue scale for pain assessment, Burn Man Itch Scale for perceived patient itchiness, 5-D Pruritus Scale for sleep quality, and heart rate variability (HRV) for effects on the autonomic nervous system. Results: The clinical symptoms were significantly decreased following the intervention, but the effect did not endure. The normal-to-normal heart rate interval, heart rate analysis abnormalities, and very low frequency heart rate were significantly decreased among patients with abnormal HRV (SD < 40) following treatment. Conclusion: Stimulation of the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints may effectively reduce pain, itchiness, and sleep disturbances among patients with PBS syndrome.

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  • Perspective Article2021-06-30
    JAMS

    Abstract : Fu’s subcutaneous needling (FSN) is a novel acupuncture approach. Although it has been popularized and widely used by acupuncture practitioners, theoretical research on its mechanism of action remains lacking. This study establishes an immunological hypothesis for the efficacy of FSN basis existing knowledge in biomedical science, histology and physiology, and traditional acupuncture mechanisms. The theoretical inference indicates that FSN treatment may affect the body's immune system through subcutaneous connective tissue, similar to triggering a cobweb-like system. This article also proposes possible clinical implications of this theory, which require further studies to validate.

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  • Abstract : Background: Anthropometric and anatomical Chinese inch measurement (CUN) systems are useful in understanding the location of acupoints; however, locating acupoints is challenging. Objectives: The study aimed to locate LI4 and LI6, to measure differences and similarities in body dimensions based on sex using anthropometric and CUN systems, and to observe the relationship between f-cun and b-cun. Methods: 25 forearms and hands from 16 embalmed cadavers had body dimensions measured using anthropometric and CUN systems. LI4 and LI6 were located using a combination of both systems. Data were compiled and calculated to observe any variation in means and ranges. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. Results: LI4 was found on the skin at the lateral border of the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was found 3 cun or 74 ± 8 mm from LI5. Differences were observed between male and female cadavers and a large difference between f-cun and b-cun measurements of 1.5 to 3 cun. There were positive correlations between several body dimensions observed. Conclusions: LI4 was located on the dorsum of the hand, radial to the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was located 3 cun from LI5 with an error of 1 to ½ cun variation. The differences in f-cun and bcun in isolating LI6 seem to account for this error. Future studies using cadavers may need to take this error into consideration for variation and measuring differences.

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  • Research Article2020-08-01

    Wet Cupping Therapy Improves the Parameters of Ventricular Repolarization

    Mustafa Çelik 1, *, Hasan E. Yücel 2, Serkan Sivri 1, Erdogan Sökmen ? 1, Cahit Uçar 2

    Abstract : Background: Cupping therapy (CT) is an ancient medical treatment since antiquity and is used for the treatment of such various disease states as contagious diseases, chronic or acute inflammatory disease, and autoimmune disorders. Ventricular repolarization is represented by QT and corrected-QT (QTc) intervals from surface electrocardiography. Objectives: As novel repolarization parameters, Tpeak-toTend (Tp-Te) interval, and Tp-Te/QT and Tp-Te/ QTc ratios are suggested to correlate better with ventricular arrhythmia risk in various clinical conditions than sole QT and QTc intervals. In this study, we aimed to determine whether these parameters changed significantly after CT in healthy individuals. Methods: One hundred and twenty participants (57 women and 63 men; mean age: 49.0 ± 13.0 years) participated in this study. ECGs strips were recorded 1 hour before and 1 hour after CT from each participant, and relevant ECG parameters were compared. Results: Tp-Te interval [69.51 ± 11.54 msec vs 63.15 ± 10.89 msec, p = 0.001], Tp-Te/QT ratio [0.191 ± 0.030 vs 0.174 ± 0.031, p = 0.002] and Tp-Te/QTc ratio [0.175 ± 0.030 vs 0.159 ± 0.026, p = 0.001] were found to be significantly decreased 1 hour after the procedure compared with the pre-procedure values. However, no statistically significant change was observed in mean heart rate, QT and QTc intervals, QT/ QRS and cQT/QRS, and frontal QRS/T angle after the procedure compared with the same parameters before the procedure (p > 0.05). Conclusions: In accordance with the results of our study, it is plausible to conclude that CT may exert cardioprotective effect. However, larger scale prospective studies are needed to support our findings.

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
June, 2022
Vol.15 No.3

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Clinical Study Protocol2021-04-30

    A Study on the Effects of Dry Needling in Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Spasticity: Protocol of a Randomized Waitlist-Controlled Trial

    Omid Motamedzadeh1,2, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari1,2,3,*, Soofia Naghdi1,2, Amirreza Azimi4, Ashraf Mahmoudzadeh5, Sandra Calvo6, Pablo Herrero7

    Abstract : Background: Spasticity is a common symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dry needling (DN) has been considered a useful method for the treatment of spasticity; however, there are no studies on the effects of DN on spasticity in patients with MS. We propose a study protocol aiming to investigate the effects of DN on spasticity in patients with MS. Methods: MS patients with plantar flexor spasticity will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to the DN group, where they will be receiving a single session of DN, one minute for each head of gastrocnemius muscle, or to the waiting list control group with no intervention. Primary outcome measures are the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) for gastrocnemius spasticity, passive resistive torque, and podography for foot pressure distribution. The ankle active and passive range of dorsiflexion and Timed Up and Go tests are the secondary outcome measures. All outcomes will be measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and one week later. A mixed-model, general linear model, and two-way repeated-measures ANOVA will be used to compare the quantitative variables between groups and within groups at the measurement time points. The MAS ordinal measure of spasticity will be compared between groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and both the Friedman test and Wilcoxon test will be used for within-group changes. Discussion: This study will provide primary evidence on the effects of DN on gastrocnemius muscle spasticity and gait in patients with MS. Trial registration: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT): IRCT20190617043918N1.

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  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Abstract : Background: Migraine is a very common neurobiological headache disorder caused by an increased irritability of the central nervous system. Acupuncture as a complementary medicine has been suggested as one of the treatments for migraine headaches; however, the findings are conflicting. Objectives: Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acupuncture with auricular semi-permanent (ASP) needles on migraine headaches. Methods: In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 80 patients with migraine were selected and divided into two groups. The intervention group was treated with auricular ASP needles in the active points of the ear, and the control group only received routine treatments. Pain score, frequency of migraine headaches, duration of headaches, severity of nausea and vomiting, and patient satisfaction were compared between the two groups for four weeks after the intervention. Results: Our results showed that the level of pain (4.72 ± 2.53, 2.13 ± 1.76 times) and the frequency of migraine headaches (8.98 ± 8.58 hours) from the second week after the intervention in the ASP group were much lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). However, pain incidence and ear inflammation in the ASP group were negligible and did not differ significantly from those in the control group (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Auricular acupuncture could be considered as a promising complementary therapy along with other standard migraine therapies for the prevention and treatment of migraine headaches.

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  • Conference Abstracts2021-06-30
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  • Research Article2021-06-30

    Abstract : Background: Nursing students experience clinical stress frequently and severely. The application of acupressure is reported to be effective in stress management.Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the effects of acupressure on reducing the stress of nursing students in clinical practice. Methods: This study was carried out using a single-blind randomized controlled experimental design. The experimental and control groups were randomly determined by using a previously prepared randomization checklist. A Participant Information Form, VAS, and the State Anxiety Inventory were applied to all students before practice. Acupressure was performed on the HT7 point and Yintang point (EX-HN3), respectively, every five minutes for a total of 30 minutes in the experimental group. Results: The level of stress experienced by the students in the experimental group before the intervention according to VAS was 6.95 ± 1.57, and it was determined as 2.82 ± 1.94 after the third application (p < 0.05). The mean clinical stress score before the application was 46.54 ± 3.81, and after the 3rd week of application, it was 25.15 ± 5.26 (p < 0.05). It was observed that the students' stress levels decreased in all measurements made after the acupressure intervention. Conclusion: This study determined that acupressure effectively reduces the stress levels of nursing students, and it may be applied in clinical stress management.

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  • Review Article2021-04-30

    Abstract : Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as cramping pain in the lower abdomen with no pelvic diseases, and it has a high prevalence in many countries. Acupressure is a widely used complementary treatment method for primary dysmenorrhea. This review examined experimental studies to determine the effects of acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea using the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINAHL with the keywords “Acupressure” and “Dysmenorrhea”. There were 2227 records in the databases, and 330 articles were published between 1989 and March 2020. Experimental studies in the English language were reviewed according to the PRISMA guidelines. This review included 28 published studies that were assessed using the Jadad score for quality. The studies were categorized as studies of acupressure at the LR3 point (n = 4), at the SP6 point (n = 9), at auricular points (n = 5), at multiple points (n = 8), and with devices (n = 2). Moreover, studies of self-acupressure (n = 9) were identified. The studies demonstrated that acupressure could reduce menstrual symptoms, the severity and duration of menstrual pain, distress, and anxiety. Furthermore, it helped improve the quality of life and well-being of patients and provide psychological support and self-care. Acupressure is an inexpensive, easy-to-apply, and non-pharmacological treatment and is useful for reducing primary dysmenorrhea, and women can apply this method anywhere by themselves. However, high-quality randomized controlled trials with larger samples are necessary to establish the evidence for acupressure as an effective intervention.

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  • Research Article2020-10-01

    The Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Spasticity in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Dian E. Putri 1, *, Adiningsih Srilestari 1, Kemas Abdurrohim 1, Irawan Mangunatmadja 2, Luh K. Wahyuni 3

    Abstract : Background: Spasticity in cerebral palsy is one of the most common disabilities of children in developing countries. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of laser acupuncture on spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with spastic cerebral palsy at 2 to 10 years. The patients were categorized into two groups: the control group and treatment group. Laser acupuncture was applied on GV20, GV14, LI4, GB34, and LR3 (power 50 mW, 785 nm, 1 Joule, 40 seconds) three times a week for 12 sessions in the treatment group and placebo laser acupuncture on the same points in the control group. The spasticity was measured using the Modified Ashworth Scale before and after complete sessions. Results: The results showed that there was a significant reduction in the Modified Ashworth Scale score in the treatment group compared with the control group (p = 0.003). Conclusions: This study suggest that laser acupuncture on GV20, GV14, LI4, GB34, and LR3 can reduce spasticity for children with spastic cerebral palsy.

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