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  • Research Article2022-12-31
    Abstract

    Background: Acupuncture is a non-pharmacological therapy used clinically for mood disorders. Relief of physical symptoms with acupuncture treatment may lead to relief of depressive symptoms and improvement of quality of life (QoL). Few studies have examined the effect of acupuncture on the physical symptoms and QoL of patients with mood disorders.Objectives: To examine the effect of acupuncture on physical symptoms and QoL of patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD).Methods: This prospective, single-arm, longitudinal study included patients with MDD and BD from an outpatient psychiatric clinic. Acupuncture was performed weekly for 12 weeks in combination with regular treatment, with fixed acupoints and individualized treatment for each patient. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Himorogi Self-Rating Depression Scale (HSDS) and Himorogi Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (HSAS). Physical symptoms such as physical pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sleep disorders were evaluated using the Japanese version of the Somatic Symptom Scale-8 (SSS-8) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). QoL was evaluated using the 8-item Short-Form (SF-8) Health Survey.Results: A total of 36 patients (15 MDD and 21 BD patients) were analyzed. After 12 weeks of acupuncture, HSDS and HSAS scores significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Physical symptoms evaluated using SSS-8 and VAS scores also significantly improved (p < 0.05). In particular, neck pain and insomnia improved at an early stage. Among the SF-8 subscales, scores of bodily pain, general health perception, role limitations due to emotional problems, and mental health significantly increased (p < 0.05).Conclusion: Acupuncture may improve not only psychiatric symptoms but also physical symptoms and QoL in patients with treatment-resistant mood disorders. Further studies are required for confirmation of the preliminary data collected thus far.

  • Abstract

    Introduction: Is Primo Vascular System (PVS) a paradox? Finding the connection between PVS as a carrier of information and the body’s reactions at the micro and macro levels will be the starting point in understanding the meaning of life as such. Before the past of PVS knowledge: The initial phase of medicine in all cultures is reduced to the transfer of specific energy by special pathways throughout the body! This is the case in China, India, Japan, Korea, Tibet, etc. Undoubtedly, the five articles by B. H. Kim published in the early 1960s are considered to be the past of PVS. Strange present: PVS studies after 2002 are accepted as a present. Most of the articles on the topic are in journals with editors-in-chief originating and/or accepting the achievements of Eastern medicine. Is the science of PVS local since its research is in journals that publish mainly articles on Eastern medicine? Why few of the articles concerning PVS are in Western medicine journals? PVS: after the future or some conclusions and proposals: All substances, objects, biological objects generate a weak electromagnetic radiation typical for each of them which is a passport of the information. PVS has all the data to be the main carrier of information. Information medicine and Quantum Biology can serve as a basis for medicine and biomedical sciences, and it should explain the processes that exist for the change of DNA and organisms in

  • Abstract

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the biological research carried out in North Korea with the modern outcomes in the same field, from a historical perspective. In the 1960s, the group led by Bong-Han Kim asserted the existence of a fundamental circulatory system in the human body. Their findings were introduced in five papers as well as in the newspaper Rodong Sinmun. The size of the group, the range of equipment, and their findings expanded gradually, and the final paper on blood cells would be only published one of over sixty papers reported at that time. In the five papers, some unclear and inconsistent contents were found. Meanwhile, in the 2000s, PVS (primo vascular system) researchers have published over one hundred papers to prove the existence of this novel system. Some trends have emerged in approximately sixty papers as follows: The research on the identification of the anatomical and histological characteristics has gradually expanded to encompass the system’s own functioning. Also, new visual results (e.g. before and after dyeing, and its comparison with blood clots) and the exploration of possible medical applications (e.g. cancer metastasis channels or stem cells location) have been proposed. However, it is difficult to identify papers which comprehensively represented the elements claimed by Bong-Han Kim’s group. In addition, papers have been published more in alternative or Oriental medicine journals than in Western biomedical journals. It seems necessary to report more existence of the system in one laboratory animal and in more influential journals.

  • Review Article2022-02-28
    Abstract

    The primo vascular system (PVS) is of great interest to scientists in the last few years. The PVS plays a role in stem cell migration, immune function, erythropoiesis, tissue regeneration, and cancer metastasis. Discovered by Bong Han Kim in 1960, the PVS was described as a new, independent system that is distributed in the body of different animals. Since then, several cells have been discovered as important constituents of the PVS. Endothelial cells are hallmarks for the identification of the PVS, as they line the sinuses of the primo vessels and are characterized by their arrangement of rod-shaped nuclei in a parallel, broken-line fashion along the primo vessels. Immune cells as mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes are also hallmarks for the identification of the PVS. One of the most interesting cells in the PVS are p-microcells. Primo nodes are a stem cell niche due to their p-microcells content, which express stem cell biomarkers CD133 and Oct 4. Mature erythrocytes and hematopoietic stem cells have also been observed in the PVS. Hematopoietic stem cells were observed in the PVS. Hematopoietic Stem Cells are the source of the cellular component of blood. Additionally, adrenaline and noradrenaline-producing cells, mesothelial cells, and smooth-muscle-like cells have also been described in the PVS.

  • Review Article2022-06-30

    Exploring Acupuncture Actions in the Body and Brain

    In-Seon Lee, Younbyoung Chae*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 157-162 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.157
    Abstract

    Acupuncture’s actions have been explained by biomedical research. However, the meridian system used in acupuncture needs further clarification. This review describes how acupuncture affects the body and brain. From the perspective of traditional East Asian medicine, the meridian system is closely connected with acupuncture’s treatment effects. In the body, the indications of acupoints, primarily established based on the meridian system, have spatial symptom patterns. Spatial patterns of acupoint indications are distant from the stimulated sites and strongly associated with the corresponding meridian’s route. Understanding how acupuncture works based on the original meridian system is important. From a neuroscience perspective, an acupuncture-induced sensation originates from the bottom-up action of simple needling in the peripheral receptor and the reciprocal interaction with top-down brain modulation. In the brain, enhanced bodily attention triggered by acupuncture stimulation can activate the salience network and deactivate the default mode network regardless of the actual stimulation. The application of data science technology to acupuncture research may provide new tools to uncover the principles of acupoint selection and enhance the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment in various diseases.

  • Case Report2023-04-30

    Integrative Strategy with Ayurveda and Electro-Acupuncture in Hemifacial Spasm: a Case Report

    Akshatha K Bhat1,*, Venugopalan Krishna kumar2, Jim Daniel Johnson3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(2): 65-69 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.2.65
    Abstract

    We report a primary hemifacial spasm that started four years ago with sudden twitching of the face towards the right side. It was diagnosed as a hemifacial spasm by a neurologist and prescribed with Zeptol 100 mg 0.5 tablet BID for two weeks, followed by two sittings of Botox injection in a gap of 1 year. A year later, it reappeared more severely, driving her towards an integrative treatment modality. Ayurveda treatments including Nasya, Ksheera dhooma, internal medications, and Rasona navaneetha prayoga were administered. GV20, GB14, EX-HN5, ST3, ST4, ST6, TE17, LI4, and GB34 were selected for electro-acupuncture. The scores of hemifacial spasm grading and quality of life scale were 9 and 20 (before), 6 and 16 (after treatment), and 4 and 10 (follow-up after six months), respectively. This integrative approach was safe and has shown an improvement in hemifacial spasm.

  • Review Article2022-08-31
    Abstract

    Currently, acupressure is widely accepted as a non-pharmacological therapy for managing pain, nausea and vomiting, and mental health conditions. Since acupressure can be self-administered, clinicians and researchers’ interest in information and communication technologies (ICTs) for disseminating acupressure to manage symptoms has increased. This mini review was conducted to examine clinical studies of acupressure using ICTs, with a particular focus on self-acupressure. Through a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL, all studies of self-acupressure using ICTs published before December 31, 2021 were collected. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. More than half of the studies published since 2020 (4/7, 54.14%) were described as being related to COVID-19. As target conditions, musculoskeletal injuries or pain, cancer-related symptoms, dysmenorrhea, mental health issues, and obesity were considered. The most frequently used acupoints were LI4, LR3, and Shenmen. Moreover, smartphone applications were the most commonly used ICT method to support self-acupressure. In addition to the basic information of self-acupressure, other tools such as timers, reminders, and schedule checkers to facilitate its implementations have been incorporated into the smartphone applications. Recently, there have been some attempts to combine acupressure and ICTs. Although these studies mainly focus on musculoskeletal pain or injuries, recent studies related to mental health have emerged in relation to COVID-19. However, few studies have been conducted to date, making it difficult to fully grasp the trends in this field. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of combining self-acupressure and ICTs in more diverse clinical areas.

  • Research Article2022-04-30

    Participation of Potential Transient Receptors in the Antinociceptive Effect of Pharmacopuncture

    Isabella de Paula Ribeiro Argôlo1,*, Julia Risso Parisi2, Josie Resende Torres da Silva1, Marcelo Lourenço da Silva1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(2): 105-113 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.2.105
    Abstract

    Background: Despite the widespread clinical use of acupuncture in painful situations, the use of this treatment should be further clarified. Nociception is mediated by the activation of nociceptors, such as transient receptor potentials (TRPs). The family of TRPs includes TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1, which can be stimulated by substances such as capsaicin, menthol, and methyl salicylate, respectively.Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the role of TRPs in antinociception via the administration of agonists of these receptors in the Zusanli acupoint (ST36) in models of inflammatory, acute, and neuropathic pain.Methods: Male Wistar rats were used for this experiment. All rats received a subcutaneous injection of TRP agonists (capsaicin, menthol, or methyl salicylate) in ST36; saline was injected as control. Nociception was evaluated using the electronic mechanical threshold test and tail-flick test before the administration of complete Freund’s adjunct or chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve and after the administration of TRP agonists. Results: Nociception was found to be attenuated after treatment with TRP agonists. The administration of different doses (0.03, 0.3, and 3.0 μg/20 μL) of capsaicin, menthol, and methyl salicylate in the different pain models (neuropathic, inflammatory, and nociceptive) induced antinociception in most of the evaluated time points.Conclusion: Based on the findings, we suggest that the activation of TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1 receptors results in the antinociceptive effect of the stimulation of the ST36 acupoint. Thus, TRP receptors may present a new therapeutic opportunity for the control of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

  • Research Article2022-12-31

    Comparison of the Effects of Myofascial Meridian Stretching Exercises and Acupuncture in Patients with Low Back Pain

    Dilek Eker Büyükşireci1,*, Nesrin Demirsoy1, Setenay Mit2, Ersel Geçioğlu2, İlknur Onurlu1, Zafer Günendi1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(6): 347-355 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.6.347
    Abstract

    Background: Acupuncture and myofascial meridians show great anatomical and clinical compatibility.Objectives: We aimed to compare the effects of myofascial meridian stretching exercises and acupuncture in patients with low back pain.Methods: We randomized 81 subjects with acute/subacute low back pain into three groups: an acupuncture (A) group, a myofascial meridian stretching (MMS) group, and a control (C) group. We recorded the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and Roland- Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) scores at baseline and weeks two and six. We evaluated posterior pelvic tilt and transversus abdominis muscle strenghth with a pressure biofeedback unit, back extensor muscle strength by the Sorenson test, and lumbar range of motion (ROM) with an inclinometer. Group A received acupuncture (BL 57 and BL 62 acupoints) and stretching exercises according to the posterior superficial line were applied to the MMS group.Results: Improvements in the NRS score were more prominent in group A than in group C (p = 0.004). The RMQ score improvement between baseline and weeks two and six was more prominent in groups A and MMS (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). The Sorenson test showed significant improvement between the baseline and week two in groups A and MMS (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, respectively). The increase in lumbar ROM measurement in the MMS group between baseline and week two was significantly higher than in groups A and C (p = 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively).Conclusion: Stretching exercises according to the myofascial meridian system and acupuncture contributed to improved symptoms in the first two weeks in patients with acute/subacute low-back pain.

  • Research Article2022-06-30

    Postoperative Acupuncture is as Effective as Preoperative Acupuncture or Meloxicam in Dogs Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy: a Blind Randomized Study

    Ana Carla Zago Basilio Ferro1, Caroline Cannolas2, Juliana Cristianini Reginato2, Stelio Pacca Loureiro Luna1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 181-188 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.181
    Abstract

    Background: Acupuncture has the same analgesic effect as non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and opioids. It is challenging to perform preoperative acupuncture in unmanageable animals, while the residual postoperative anesthetic effect facilitates the performance of acupuncture postoperatively.Objectives: To compare preoperative acupuncture or meloxicam versus postoperative acupuncture for postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy.Methods: This is a horizontal prospective positive control blind randomized experimental study. Thirty-six dogs were randomly divided into three groups: GA (preemptive acupuncture), GPA (postoperative acupuncture), and GM (meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg IV preoperatively). After sedation with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg IM), anesthesia was induced with propofol (5.3 ± 0.3 mg/kg) and maintained with isoflurane/O2. Fentanyl (2 μg/kg, IV) was administered immediately before surgery. Bilateral acupuncture was performed at acupoints Large intestine 4, Spleen 6, and Stomach 36 for 20 minutes, before (GA) or immediately after surgery (GPA). Pain was evaluated by an observer blind to the treatment using the Glasgow scale before and for 24 hours after ovariohysterectomy. Dogs with a score ≥ 6 received rescue analgesia with morphine (0.5 mg/kg IM). Nonparametric data were analyzed by the Kruskal–Wallis test, followed by Dunn’s test and parametric data by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test.Results: Two GA and one GPA dogs received rescue analgesia once. Two GM dogs received rescue analgesia and one of those was treated again twice. There were no differences in the number of dogs receiving rescue analgesia between groups (p = 0.80).Conclusion: Postoperative acupuncture was as effective as preoperative acupuncture or meloxicam in female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Vol.16 No.6
December, 2023

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2022-08-31

    Effects of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Dogs with Neurological Sequels of Distemper Virus

    Bianca P. C. R. Santos1, Jean G. F. Joaquim2, Renata Navarro Cassu3,*, José C. F. Pantoja1, Stelio Pacca Loureiro Luna1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 238-246 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.238
    Abstract

    Background: Acupuncture (AP) has been empirically used to relieve post-canine distemper virus (CDV) infection neurological signs in veterinary clinics.Objectives: This clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of AP combined with electroacupuncture (EA) on neurological function in dogs infected by CDV.Methods: Twenty-four CDV-infected dogs with neurological sequelae were recruited to receive weekly AP/EA sections for 24 weeks. Neurological improvements were assessed before each AP/EA session using a modified scoring system. Data were analyzed using the McNemar test, Friedman test, Fisher's exact test, and Kaplan-Meier curves (p < 0.05).Results: Neurological scores improved from seven to 24 weeks after AP/EA treatment compared with pretreatment scores (p < 0.001). Significant improvements were recorded over time for functional limb recovery, cranial nerve deficits, mental status (p = 0.025 – 0.014), and urinary function (p < 0.001). Myoclonus was improved and entirely reversed in 75% and 25% of the dogs, respectively. At the end of treatment, the proportion of dogs with normal proprioception, posture, hopping (p < 0.001), and superficial pain sensation responses (p = 0.004) was greater than pretreatment values.Conclusion: AP/EA therapy promoted significant neurological recovery in CDV-infected dogs and may be considered within the chronic phase of the disease to improve motor and sensory rehabilitation. However, these results are preliminary and must be confirmed by further investigations.

  • Research Article2022-04-30

    Link Between Electroacupuncture Stimulation near the Sympathetic Trunk and Heart Rate Variability

    Kazufumi Takahashi2,3,*, Xiaoming Wang2,3, Daiyu Shinohara1, Kenji Imai2,3
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(2): 114-120 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.2.114
    Abstract

    Background: The cardiovascular system and airway smooth muscles are regulated by the autonomic nervous system.Objectives: This study investigated the effect of electrical acupuncture stimulation near the cervical sympathetic ganglia on heart rate variability and respiratory function.Methods: This prospective, single-center study at Teikyo Heisei University recruited 24 healthy adults randomly assigned to no-stimulation and electroacupuncture (EA) groups in a crossover trial with a 2-week washout period. After 5 min of rest, a 5-min rest or acupuncture stimulus was delivered, followed by a further 5 min of rest for both groups. EA, at 2-Hz (level of no pain), was delivered near the left cervical ganglia at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra in the EA group.Results: The high-frequency component of the heart rate variability was significantly higher in the EA group than that in the no-stimulation group. Further, there was a significant increase in the high-frequency component of the heart rate in the EA group during the stimulation compared to before and after stimulation. Heart rate decreased significantly during EA compared to before stimulation in the EA group. Regarding respiratory function, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and peak flow significantly increased in the EA group compared with the no-stimulation group, and after stimulation compared with before stimulation.Conclusion: Stimulation with 2-Hz EA near the cervical sympathetic trunk increased parasympathetic nerve activity and reduced heart rate. However, the respiratory function was activated via increased sympathetic nerve activity. Therefore, 2-Hz EA may be effective for autonomic nerve regulation in bronchial stenosis.

  • Research Article2022-02-28

    GB20 Pharmacopuncture As a Potential Method for Brain Drug Delivery via the Perivascular Spaces

    Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya1,2,*, Inna Blokhina2, Nikita Navolokin2,3, Arina Evsukova2, Georgy Karandin2, Alexander Khorovodov2, Andrey Terskov2, Ivan Fedosov2, Alexander Dubrovsky2, Maria Tzoy2, Vasily Ageev2, Ilana Agranovich2, Valeria Telnova2, Anna Tsven2, Jürgen Kurths1,2,4
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(1): 43-49 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.1.43
    Abstract

    Background: The development of new methods of drug brain delivery is a crucial step for the effective therapy of the brain diseases. Pharma- and acupuncture are the forms of alternative therapy of the brain pathology, including an increase in the permeability of blood-brain barrier. However, the mechanisms of pharma- and acupuncture-mediated effects on the brain physiology remain not fully understood. Results: This pilot study on healthy mice clearly demonstrates the Evans Blue spreading in the mouse head and in the brain via the perivascular spaces (PVSs) of the trigeminal structure and the cribriform plate after the dye injection into the Feng Chi point (Galbladder 20, GB20). Conclusion: These results suggest that pharmacopuncture at GB20 can be a perspective method for brain drug delivery via PVSs.

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  • Review Article2022-06-30

    Exploring Acupuncture Actions in the Body and Brain

    In-Seon Lee, Younbyoung Chae*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 157-162 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.157
    Abstract

    Acupuncture’s actions have been explained by biomedical research. However, the meridian system used in acupuncture needs further clarification. This review describes how acupuncture affects the body and brain. From the perspective of traditional East Asian medicine, the meridian system is closely connected with acupuncture’s treatment effects. In the body, the indications of acupoints, primarily established based on the meridian system, have spatial symptom patterns. Spatial patterns of acupoint indications are distant from the stimulated sites and strongly associated with the corresponding meridian’s route. Understanding how acupuncture works based on the original meridian system is important. From a neuroscience perspective, an acupuncture-induced sensation originates from the bottom-up action of simple needling in the peripheral receptor and the reciprocal interaction with top-down brain modulation. In the brain, enhanced bodily attention triggered by acupuncture stimulation can activate the salience network and deactivate the default mode network regardless of the actual stimulation. The application of data science technology to acupuncture research may provide new tools to uncover the principles of acupoint selection and enhance the clinical efficacy of acupuncture treatment in various diseases.

  • Research Article2023-06-30

    Ziwuliuzhu Acupuncture Modulates Clock mRNA, Bmal1 mRNA and Melatonin in Insomnia Rats

    Ao Huang1, Gefang Xiao2, Yiliu Chen1, Zuying Hu1, Pin-Hsuan Lee1, Yusen Huang1, Zifeng Zhuang1, Yuling Zhang1, Peng Qing2,*, Canghuan Zhao2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2023; 16(3): 109-118 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2023.16.3.109
    Abstract

    Background: In clinics, Ziwuliuzhu acupuncture is widely considered an effective method of treating insomnia; however, there is currently limited information available regarding its possible mechanisms. Although the method of Ziwuliuzhu acupuncture possesses a unique rhythmic pattern.Objectives: In this study, we have creatively combined the traditional Chinese medicine of Ziwuliuzhu with a modern biological rhythm to investigate the internal mechanism of insomnia.Methods: Pathological tissue from the hypothalamus was analyzed using hematoxylin–eosin staining. The level of TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α in the SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) area of the hypothalamus was detected in situ using the TUNEL fluorescence staining assay. The concentration of hypothalamic melatonin was detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA expression of Clock and Bmal1 was measured using RT-qPCR.Results: In the Ziwuliuzhu acupuncture groups, the structural damage in the hypothalamic neurons was alleviated compared to the model group and the expression of inflammatory factors was reduced. The mRNA expression levels of Clock and Bmal1 were significantly increased (p < 0.05). The concentration of melatonin was significantly increased (p < 0.001). Although there were no significant differences between the treatment groups (diazepam group, Nazi group, Najia group, and routine group) (p > 0.05).Conclusion: Ziwuliuzhu acupuncture alleviated neuronal damage and modulated the inflammatory reaction in the hypothalamus of rats with insomnia. Moreover, Ziwuliuzhu acupuncture increased the expression levels of Clock and Bmal1 mRNA, and MT content. This study has potentially highlighted one of the mechanisms through which Ziwuliuzhu acupuncture can be used to treat insomnia.

  • Research Article2022-12-31

    Comparison of the Effects of Myofascial Meridian Stretching Exercises and Acupuncture in Patients with Low Back Pain

    Dilek Eker Büyükşireci1,*, Nesrin Demirsoy1, Setenay Mit2, Ersel Geçioğlu2, İlknur Onurlu1, Zafer Günendi1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(6): 347-355 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.6.347
    Abstract

    Background: Acupuncture and myofascial meridians show great anatomical and clinical compatibility.Objectives: We aimed to compare the effects of myofascial meridian stretching exercises and acupuncture in patients with low back pain.Methods: We randomized 81 subjects with acute/subacute low back pain into three groups: an acupuncture (A) group, a myofascial meridian stretching (MMS) group, and a control (C) group. We recorded the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and Roland- Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) scores at baseline and weeks two and six. We evaluated posterior pelvic tilt and transversus abdominis muscle strenghth with a pressure biofeedback unit, back extensor muscle strength by the Sorenson test, and lumbar range of motion (ROM) with an inclinometer. Group A received acupuncture (BL 57 and BL 62 acupoints) and stretching exercises according to the posterior superficial line were applied to the MMS group.Results: Improvements in the NRS score were more prominent in group A than in group C (p = 0.004). The RMQ score improvement between baseline and weeks two and six was more prominent in groups A and MMS (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). The Sorenson test showed significant improvement between the baseline and week two in groups A and MMS (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, respectively). The increase in lumbar ROM measurement in the MMS group between baseline and week two was significantly higher than in groups A and C (p = 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively).Conclusion: Stretching exercises according to the myofascial meridian system and acupuncture contributed to improved symptoms in the first two weeks in patients with acute/subacute low-back pain.

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