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  • Research Article2021-12-31

    Mechanisms of Electroacupuncture Pretreatment in Alleviating Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: Interactions between the Cerebellar Fastigial Nucleus and Lateral Hypothalamic Area

    Qing Yu1,2, Li-bin Wu1, Fan Zhang1, Xiao-tong Wei1, Pian-pian Chen1, Shuai-ya Wang1, Mei-yi Cai1, Qi Shu1, Liao-yuan Li1, Zi-jian Wu2,3, Rong-lin Cai2,3,*, Ling Hu2,3,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(6): 207-218 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.6.207

    Abstract : Background: Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) is an important mechanism of post-myocardial infarction injury and a main cause of death in patients with ischemic heart disease. Electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment is effective for the prevention and treatment of MIRI, but mechanisms mediating the effects of cardiovascular disease EA treatments remain unclear.Objectives: To determine whether the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) are involved in the protective effects of EA stimulation on MIRI. Methods: EA pretreatment was performed for 7 days before the establishment of the MIRI model. ST-segment changes on electrocardiograms were recorded and the Curtis–Walker arrhythmia score was used to evaluate changes in reperfusion injury. Hematoxylin–eosin staining was applied to evaluate the pathological and morphological changes in myocardial tissue. c-fos expression in the LHA and FN was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Glutamic (Glu) and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical method. Results: EA pretreatment reduced ST-segment elevation, arrhythmia scores, and morphological changes in MIRI myocardial cells in rats, and decreased the c-fos protein expression in LHA/FN nuclei. MIRI was associated with an imbalance between GABA and Glu levels, whereas EA pretreatment increased GABA levels and decreased Glu levels in the LHA/FN. Conclusion: FN and LHA are involved in the EA-mediated attenuation of MIRI. Pretreatment with EA plays a protective role in the myocardium by regulating Glu and GABA release in the LHA and FN.

  • Perspective Article2022-08-31

    Correlation Between the Sinew Channels with the Myofascial System, Pathology, and Treatment

    Pablo Nava Jaimes*, Alejandro Martínez Reyes, Daniel García Lara, Abel Cristian Patiño Coyuca
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 201-213 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.201

    Abstract : The sinew channels are a tendon and muscle network, and their description is based on the observation presented on the Huangdi Neijing Ling Shu. However, the myofascial system is an uninterrupted series of connective tissue that is comprised of layers that run in different directions. The similarities on these pathways are compared, such as a brief description on the myofascial pain syndrome and its similitude with the Impediment disorder from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Furthermore, we discuss the treatment of these conditions from a Traditional Chinese Medicine perspective.

  • Review Article2022-02-28

    Abstract : The primo vascular system (PVS) is of great interest to scientists in the last few years. The PVS plays a role in stem cell migration, immune function, erythropoiesis, tissue regeneration, and cancer metastasis. Discovered by Bong Han Kim in 1960, the PVS was described as a new, independent system that is distributed in the body of different animals. Since then, several cells have been discovered as important constituents of the PVS. Endothelial cells are hallmarks for the identification of the PVS, as they line the sinuses of the primo vessels and are characterized by their arrangement of rod-shaped nuclei in a parallel, broken-line fashion along the primo vessels. Immune cells as mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes are also hallmarks for the identification of the PVS. One of the most interesting cells in the PVS are p-microcells. Primo nodes are a stem cell niche due to their p-microcells content, which express stem cell biomarkers CD133 and Oct 4. Mature erythrocytes and hematopoietic stem cells have also been observed in the PVS. Hematopoietic stem cells were observed in the PVS. Hematopoietic Stem Cells are the source of the cellular component of blood. Additionally, adrenaline and noradrenaline-producing cells, mesothelial cells, and smooth-muscle-like cells have also been described in the PVS.

  • Abstract : Background: Despite the adherence to medications, the control of the modifiable key risk factor—intraocular pressure (IOP)—for the progression of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in diabetics is usually difficult; hence, many glaucoma patients try other alternative therapeutic options. Objectives: This randomized controlled study investigated the short-term IOP response to the combined effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation over acupoint (Acu-TENS) and yoga ocular exercise in type 2 diabetics with POAG. Methods: Eighty diabetics with bilateral POAG, ages ≥ 50 years, IOP > 21 mmHg in both eyes, and a body mass index below 30 kg/m2 were included in this trial. The patients were randomly assigned to group A (n = 40; this group received 20 minutes of yoga ocular exercise followed by 20 minutes of active Acu-TENS over bilateral BL 61 and BL 62 acupoints) and group B (n = 40; this group received the same protocol as group A but with a placebo Acu-TENS). The repeated measurement of IOP were recorded before, immediately after, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after the sessions. Results: The repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a greater significant decline of IOP in group A than group B in both eyes at the consecutive intervals of time measurements. Conclusion: According to this short-term observation, the addition of Acu-TENS to yoga ocular exercise could reduce the high IOP in diabetic patients with POAG, but further longterm trials are needed.

  • Research Article2021-12-31

    Effects of Joint Mobilization Versus Acupuncture on Pain and Functional Ability in People with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Comparative Effectiveness

    Petros Voulgarakis, Paris Iakovidis, Dimitrios Lytras*, Ioanna P. Chatziprodromidou, Anastasios Kottaras, Thomas Apostolou
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(6): 231-237 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.6.231

    Abstract : Background: Chronic Neck Pain (CNP) is one of the main contributing factors to disability in people of working age.Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the efficacy between acupuncture and joint mobilization on pain and disability in patients with CNP. Methods: The study involved 45 men and women with CNP, divided into three groups of 15 each. The first group followed a manual therapy protocol with joint mobilization for eight weeks three times per week. The second group followed an acupuncture protocol of equal duration and frequency, while the third group did not follow any treatment. Pain with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain and functional limitations with the Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire were assessed before and after an 8-week intervention. Analysis of variance was applied while post-hoc comparisons were made to determine the differences among the groups at each time of measurement. Results: Both intervention groups showed statistically significant differences compared to the control group after the end of the intervention in both the VAS and the NDI scores (p< .001). Furthermore, the acupuncture group showed a statistically significant improvement compared to the joint mobilization team after the end of the intervention in the VAS score (p< .001) and the NDI score (p< .05). Conclusion: Both joint mobilization and acupuncture appear to be effective interventions in reducing pain and improving functional ability in people with CNP. However, acupuncture appears to have a greater analgesic effect than joint mobilization.

  • Research Article2021-10-31

    Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation of PC5 and PC6 Acupoints Increases Sympathovagal Balance but Not Oxidative Stress in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Fernando Gomes de Jesus1,2, Alice Pereira Duque1,2, Carole Sant'ana Massolar1, Giselle Pinto de Faria Lopes1, Ana Carolina de Azevedo Carvalho3, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano2,4, Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Junior1,2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(5): 183-192 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.5.183

    Abstract : Background: Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) improves autonomic balance and reduces oxidative stress in subjects with chronic diseases, that decreases the risk of low-grade chronic inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. However, these beneficial effects have never been demonstrated in healthy subjects. Objectives: To evaluate the acute effects of TEAS on autonomic balance and oxidative stress of healthy subjects. Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with male healthy subjects (18-30 years old), randomly allocated to control (no intervention; n = 14), placebo (placebo intervention; n = 14) and TEAS group (at PC5 and PC6 acupoints; n = 13). The protocol consisted of accommodation (20 min), intervention (40 min), and recovery (30 min) periods. The acute effects of TEAS on hemodynamics were studied through measurements of heart rate, blood pressure and double product; on the autonomic nervous system by assessing heart rate variability; and on oxidative stress by quantifying reactive oxygen species in saliva samples, collected at the end of each period. Results: TEAS increased heart rate and double-product compared to control and placebo groups (p < 0.01). Moreover, TEAS increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic tonus, increasing the sympathovagal balance compared to the control and placebo groups. However, TEAS exerted no effect on oxidative stress in saliva samples. Conclusion: In healthy subjects, TEAS at PC5 and PC6 acupoints acutely improved autonomic balance, increasing sympathetic and reducing parasympathetic tonus, reflecting little improvement on hemodynamic responses. Whether it could be used as a cardioprotective strategy remains uncertain since it exerted no effect on oxidative stress.

  • Research Article2021-08-31

    Application of Auriculotherapy for Post-Burn Scar Syndrome in Young Adults with Major Burns

    Cha-Chun Chen1,2,3, San-Pei Chen4, Shu-Yu Lyu3, Chung-Hua Hsu2,5,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(4): 127-136 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.4.127

    Abstract : Background: A burn scar is a type of hypertrophic scar that can cause significant clinical symptoms, discomfort, and post-burn scar (PBS) syndrome in up to 77% of patients with burn injuries. Medication and rehabilitation are rarely effective at managing patient discomfort, and both laser and surgical interventions are postponed until the scar stabilizes and discomfort is tolerable. Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture among burn victims from the Formosa Color Dust Explosion in Taiwan. Methods: We enrolled 31 victims of the 2016 Formosa Color Dust Explosion who met the study inclusion criteria. The intervention involved placement of magnetic beads over the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints on one ear. Patients performed selfmassage five times per day, and both magnet beads were removed between the fifth and seventh days during the sessions. Several evaluation tools were used to assess clinical symptoms: the visual analogue scale for pain assessment, Burn Man Itch Scale for perceived patient itchiness, 5-D Pruritus Scale for sleep quality, and heart rate variability (HRV) for effects on the autonomic nervous system. Results: The clinical symptoms were significantly decreased following the intervention, but the effect did not endure. The normal-to-normal heart rate interval, heart rate analysis abnormalities, and very low frequency heart rate were significantly decreased among patients with abnormal HRV (SD < 40) following treatment. Conclusion: Stimulation of the auricular Shenmen and Subcortex acupoints may effectively reduce pain, itchiness, and sleep disturbances among patients with PBS syndrome.

  • Perspective Article2021-06-30

    Abstract : Fu’s subcutaneous needling (FSN) is a novel acupuncture approach. Although it has been popularized and widely used by acupuncture practitioners, theoretical research on its mechanism of action remains lacking. This study establishes an immunological hypothesis for the efficacy of FSN basis existing knowledge in biomedical science, histology and physiology, and traditional acupuncture mechanisms. The theoretical inference indicates that FSN treatment may affect the body's immune system through subcutaneous connective tissue, similar to triggering a cobweb-like system. This article also proposes possible clinical implications of this theory, which require further studies to validate.

  • Research Article2022-08-31

    Effects of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Dogs with Neurological Sequels of Distemper Virus

    Bianca P. C. R. Santos1, Jean G. F. Joaquim2, Renata Navarro Cassu3,*, José C. F. Pantoja1, Stelio Pacca Loureiro Luna1
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(4): 238-246 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.4.238

    Abstract : Background: Acupuncture (AP) has been empirically used to relieve post-canine distemper virus (CDV) infection neurological signs in veterinary clinics.Objectives: This clinical study aimed to investigate the effects of AP combined with electroacupuncture (EA) on neurological function in dogs infected by CDV.Methods: Twenty-four CDV-infected dogs with neurological sequelae were recruited to receive weekly AP/EA sections for 24 weeks. Neurological improvements were assessed before each AP/EA session using a modified scoring system. Data were analyzed using the McNemar test, Friedman test, Fisher's exact test, and Kaplan-Meier curves (p < 0.05).Results: Neurological scores improved from seven to 24 weeks after AP/EA treatment compared with pretreatment scores (p < 0.001). Significant improvements were recorded over time for functional limb recovery, cranial nerve deficits, mental status (p = 0.025 – 0.014), and urinary function (p < 0.001). Myoclonus was improved and entirely reversed in 75% and 25% of the dogs, respectively. At the end of treatment, the proportion of dogs with normal proprioception, posture, hopping (p < 0.001), and superficial pain sensation responses (p = 0.004) was greater than pretreatment values.Conclusion: AP/EA therapy promoted significant neurological recovery in CDV-infected dogs and may be considered within the chronic phase of the disease to improve motor and sensory rehabilitation. However, these results are preliminary and must be confirmed by further investigations.

  • Research Article2022-06-30

    Comparison of an Iranian Traditional Massage (Fateh Method) with Physiotherapy and Acupuncture for Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Parva Namiranian1, Mehrdad Karimi1, Seyede Zahra Emami Razavi2, Ahmad Fateh Garoos1, Mohammad Hossein Ayati1,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2022; 15(3): 163-173 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2022.15.3.163

    Abstract : Background: Low back pain (LBP) is currently a major reason for disability worldwide. Therapeutic massage is one of the most popular non-pharmacological methods for managing chronic LBP (CLBP), and the Fateh method is a massage technique based on Iranian Traditional Medicine.Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the effects of Fateh massage with those of acupuncture and physiotherapy on relieving pain and disability in CLBP.Methods: Eighty-four patients with CLBP were categorized into groups that received Fateh massage, acupuncture, or physiotherapy. Each group included 28 randomly assigned patients who completed 10 sessions of therapy. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and Roland–Morris disability scores were evaluated at baseline, after intervention, and four weeks later. The findings were analyzed with SPSS software.Results: The baseline VAS and Roland–Morris scores of the three study groups did not indicate significant differences (p > 0.05). All three groups showed significant pre-post improvements in both scores (p < 0.05). At the end of the treatment sessions, the three groups showed no significant difference in the reductions in pain intensity and disability score (p > 0.05). Improvements in disability and pain between the first and third time points were significant in all three groups (p < 0.05 for each group). In addition, the results of massage, physiotherapy, and acupuncture groups were not significantly different (p > 0.05). No adverse events occurred in the patients.Conclusion: The effects of Fateh massage were comparable to those of acupuncture and physiotherapy in reducing pain and disability in patients with CLBP.


Journal Info

December, 2022
Vol.15 No.6

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Abstract : Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by increased blood sugar levels. The current management of DM to date has a target of controlling blood glucose, but the therapy cannot be separated from long-term drug side effects. Acupuncture can be an option as an adjunct therapy for DM. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness between manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture. Methods: This study was a randomized control experimental study with a pretest and posttest design using 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 4 groups: a normal group, a diabetes group, an acupuncture group, and a laser group. Manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture were performed 6 times in two weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, the cell density of Langerhans islets, and side effects were assessed and compared among the 4 groups. Results: The highest mean cell density of Langerhans islets was found in the laser and acupuncture group, and the lowest was found in the diabetes group. In the post hoc analysis, the normal, acupuncture, and the laser groups had a significantly higher mean cell density than the diabetes group. The lowest mean FBG level was in the laser group, followed by the acupuncture group, and the highest was in the diabetes group, but this difference was not significant. There were no serious side effects from the use of manual acupuncture or laser acupuncture. Conclusion: Both manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture can improve the histological findings of Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic rats, and both are safe to use.

  • Research Article2021-08-31

    Heart Rate Variability and Psychometric Analysis in Patients with Hyperactive Heart Fire Syndrome

    Oliverio Medina Martínez1, Ruben Fossion3,4, Yolanda García Piceno1,2, Rosa E. Lopez-Gomez1,2, Emma López-Espinosa1,2, Ismael Jiménez-Estrada5, Salvador Quiroz-González1,2,*
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2021; 14(4): 137-148 https://doi.org/10.51507/j.jams.2021.14.4.137

    Abstract : Background: Hyperactive heart fire syndrome is characterized by anxiety, insomnia, dream-disturbed sleep, tongue ulcers, heat in the hands, and palpitations. However, syndrome differentiation is often subjective due to a lack of objective, quantifiable variables. Objectives: To identify changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and psychometric analysis in patients with hyperactive heart fire syndrome. Methods: Healthy controls (n = 33) were compared to patients with hyperactive heart fire syndrome (n = 48) from the Integrative University Clinic of the State University of Ecatepec Valley (CIU-UNEVE). Physiological outcome measures included heart rate (HR), the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal heartbeat intervals (SDNN), low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power, and the LF/HF ratio. Psychometric outcome measures included the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS). Results: Compared to controls, hyperactive heart fire patients had higher HR (9.6 ± 2.62%), LF (22 ± 4.21%) and LF/HF ratio (23 ± 3.14%), and lower SDNN (21 ± 2.33%) and HF (18 ± 4.61%). Patients showed increased anxiety, both with somatic (33 ± 11.2%) and psychic symptoms (39 ± 10.5%) with more difficulty falling asleep (47 ± 9.9%) and diurnal impact of sleep (31 ± 9.6%). Conclusion: Hyperactive heart fire patients may have a sympathovagal imbalance due to a reduced parasympathetic tone and/or adominant sympathetic tone, which may be at the origin of the observed symptoms of insomnia and anxiety.

  • Conference Abstracts2021-06-30
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  • Case Report2021-02-28

    Abstract : The present case study illustrates the case of a 47-year-old female (Ms X) with primary progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS) who presented with central post-stroke pain (CPSP) over her left shoulder and underwent acupuncture treatment (AT) since she appeared irresponsive to conventional treatment. The aim of this case study is to explore the effectiveness of acupuncture as a complimentary treatment in improving central neurogenic pain in MS patients affected by CPSP. AT lasted six weeks, some modification of the conventional AT points was required to ensure continuity and safety of the treatment plan. In fact, Ms X suffered from gingivitis that led to hypersensitivity of her left upper limb (UL) to acupuncture needling; moreover, she experienced sensation loss in her legs as a result of post-stroke complications. The outcome showed that the subject’s shoulder range of motion (ROM), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and pain improved remarkably, enabling Ms X to resume post-stroke rehabilitation and reduce her analgesic intake.

  • Review Article2021-04-30

    Abstract : Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as cramping pain in the lower abdomen with no pelvic diseases, and it has a high prevalence in many countries. Acupressure is a widely used complementary treatment method for primary dysmenorrhea. This review examined experimental studies to determine the effects of acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea using the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINAHL with the keywords “Acupressure” and “Dysmenorrhea”. There were 2227 records in the databases, and 330 articles were published between 1989 and March 2020. Experimental studies in the English language were reviewed according to the PRISMA guidelines. This review included 28 published studies that were assessed using the Jadad score for quality. The studies were categorized as studies of acupressure at the LR3 point (n = 4), at the SP6 point (n = 9), at auricular points (n = 5), at multiple points (n = 8), and with devices (n = 2). Moreover, studies of self-acupressure (n = 9) were identified. The studies demonstrated that acupressure could reduce menstrual symptoms, the severity and duration of menstrual pain, distress, and anxiety. Furthermore, it helped improve the quality of life and well-being of patients and provide psychological support and self-care. Acupressure is an inexpensive, easy-to-apply, and non-pharmacological treatment and is useful for reducing primary dysmenorrhea, and women can apply this method anywhere by themselves. However, high-quality randomized controlled trials with larger samples are necessary to establish the evidence for acupressure as an effective intervention.

  • Research Article2021-02-28

    Effect of Remote and Local Acupuncture Points on Periarthritis of Shoulder: A Comparative Study

    Kumaresan Poorna Chandran1,*, Prabu Poorna Chandran2, Naveena Arumugam3, Sendhilkumar Muthappan4

    Abstract : Background: Periarthritis of shoulder is a painful condition of the shoulder, affecting 2-3% of the general population and 20% of diabetic patients. Acupuncture is a widely practiced traditional Chinese medicine. Recent evidence shows that it alleviates shoulder pain with different needling techniques. Objectives: The present study is to compare the efficacy of remote and local points on PAS. Methods: 60 subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, remote acupuncture group (n = 30) and local acupuncture group (n = 30). Both groups were assessed at baseline and at the end of 12 sessions. Shoulder pain and its disability index (SPADI) and (ROM) were measured using goniometer. The intervention was given weekly thrice on alternate days for four weeks with 20 min for each session. Results: The result shows that both remote and local acupuncture points were beneficial in the pain management and rage of motion when compared within the group. The effects of acupuncture at remote acupoints were better than those at local acupoints in SPADI and ROM when compared between two groups. Conclusion: In treatment of periarthritis of shoulder remote acupuncture points may have higher therapeutic value when compared to local points.

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