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CrossMark Policy

Crossmark
Applying the CrossMark icon is a commitment by Medical Association of Pharmacopuncture Institute (MAPI) to maintain the content published and alert readers to changes if and when they occur.

What is Crossmark?
CrossMark, a multi-publisher initiative from CrossRef, provides a standard way for readers to locate the authoritative version of a document. We recognize the importance of the integrity and completeness of the scholarly record to researchers and librarians and attaches the highest importance to maintaining trust in the authority of its electronic archive. Clicking on the CrossMark icon will inform the reader of the current status of a document and may also provide additional publication record information about the document.


Permanency of content

All content published in Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies (JAMS) is permanently published, regardless of the outcome of the peer review that follows after publication. All versions of all articles that have passed peer review are permanently archived in the journal homepage.

Authors can revise, change and update their articles by publishing new versions, which are added to the article’s history; however, the individual versions, once published, cannot be altered or withdrawn and are permanently available on the JAMS website. JAMS participates in the CrossMark scheme, a multi-publisher initiative that has developed a standard way for readers to locate the current version of a piece of content. By applying the CrossMark policies, JAMS is committed to maintaining the content it publishes and to alerting readers to changes if and when they occur.

Clicking on the CrossMark logo (at the top of each JAMS article) will give you the current status of an article and direct you to the latest published version; it may also give you additional information such as new referee reports.

In order to maintain the integrity and completeness of the scholarly record, we will apply the following policies when published content needs to be corrected; these policies take into account current best practice in the scholarly publishing and library communities:

Correction
In traditional journals, where articles are peer-reviewed before publication, Corrections (or Errata) are published to alert readers to errors in the article that became apparent following the publication of the final article. By contrast, articles in JAMS undergo peer review post publication and publication is not ‘final’ as new versions can be added at any stage. Possible mistakes that come to light during the peer review process may be highlighted in the published referee reports, which are part of the article. Authors can publish revised versions, and any errors that become apparent during peer review or later can be corrected through the publication of new versions. Corrections and changes relative to the previous version are always summarized in the ‘Amendments’ section at the start of a new version.

Retraction
This action is reserved for articles that are seriously flawed and so the findings or conclusions cannot be relied upon. Articles may be retracted for several reasons, including:


  • honest errors reported by the authors (for example, errors due to the mixing up of samples or use of a scientific tool or equipment that is found subsequently to be faulty)

  • research misconduct (data fabrication)

  • duplicate or overlapping publication

  • fraudulent use of data

  • plagiarism

  • unethical research


For any retracted article, the reason for retraction and who is instigating the retraction will be clearly stated in the Retraction notice. The retraction notice will be linked to the retracted article (which usually remains on the site) and the article will be clearly marked as retracted (including the PDF).
An article is usually only retracted at the authors’ request or by the publisher in response to an institutional investigation. It is important to note in the context of JAMS’ publication model, that ‐ as in traditional journals ‐ a retracted article is not ‘unpublished’ or ‘withdrawn’ in order for it to be published elsewhere. The reasons for retraction are usually so serious that the whole study, or large parts of it, are not appropriate for inclusion in the scientific literature anywhere.

Removal
The removal of an article would only be undertaken where legal limitations have been placed upon the publisher, copyright holder or author(s), for example, if the article is clearly defamatory or infringes others’ legal rights, or if the article is the subject of a court order. The bibliographic information for a removed article will be retained on the site along with information regarding the circumstances that led to its removal. Under rare circumstances, for example, if false or inaccurate data have been published that, if acted upon, pose a serious health risk, the original incorrect version(s) may be removed and a corrected version published. The reason for this partial removal would be clearly stated on the latest version.

Editorial Note
If there is a potential, not yet resolved, problem with an article, it may be appropriate to alert readers with an Editorial Note. Such an Editorial Note may be added to the article, for example, if JAMS receives information that research or publication misconduct might have taken place, or that there is a serious dispute between authors or between the authors and third parties. The Editorial Note will usually be posted while further investigations take place and until a more permanent solution has been found (e.g. the publication of a revised ‘corrected’ version, or a Retraction).

Expression of Concern
In rare cases, JAMS may decide to publish an Expression of Concern, which is linked to the problematic article, if there are serious concerns about an article but no conclusive evidence can be obtained that would unequivocally justify a Retraction. This may include:


  • if there is inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct

  • there is evidence that there are problems with the article, but the authors’ institution will not investigate the case

  • an investigation into alleged misconduct has not been impartial or conclusive

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
June, 2022
Vol.15 No.3

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Case Report2021-10-31

    Abstract : Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders linked to various systemic diseases ranging from obesity to cancers. The present line of management is insufficient as reports suggest that there is persistence of symptoms and poor adherence that makes the management of said disease challenging. Acupuncture and other Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapies are proven to alleviate endocrine dysfunctions. However, reports on acupuncture and cupping therapy on hypothyroidism are very scarce. Here, we report 5 cases of hypothyroid patients aged between 38-44 yrs who were treated with acupuncture and fire cupping for a period of three months. At the baseline, the patients presented with either a weak, wiry or vacuum pulse which represents spleen Qi deficiency. Further, they presented with elevated levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), and higher Body Mass Index (BMI). Acupuncture treatment at ST36, LI4, SP6, and BL20 was given bilaterally whilst CV4, LR3, LR4, SP9, ST40, SP10, GV4, KI3, ST12, and SI17 were punctured unilaterally. At the end of the time period of three months, patients progressed to normal levels of TSH, reduction in BMI and had succeeded in tapering their medication doses. Supplementing this, the patients reported marked improvement in other symptoms like fatigue, hair loss, and cold feet post-treatment. The effects were consistent even during the three month follow-up period post-interventions. The results encourage the utilization of acupuncture and fire cupping in the management of hypothyroidism. However, large scale studies are warranted to strengthen this recommendation.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-02-28

    Effect of Remote and Local Acupuncture Points on Periarthritis of Shoulder: A Comparative Study

    Kumaresan Poorna Chandran1,*, Prabu Poorna Chandran2, Naveena Arumugam3, Sendhilkumar Muthappan4

    Abstract : Background: Periarthritis of shoulder is a painful condition of the shoulder, affecting 2-3% of the general population and 20% of diabetic patients. Acupuncture is a widely practiced traditional Chinese medicine. Recent evidence shows that it alleviates shoulder pain with different needling techniques. Objectives: The present study is to compare the efficacy of remote and local points on PAS. Methods: 60 subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, remote acupuncture group (n = 30) and local acupuncture group (n = 30). Both groups were assessed at baseline and at the end of 12 sessions. Shoulder pain and its disability index (SPADI) and (ROM) were measured using goniometer. The intervention was given weekly thrice on alternate days for four weeks with 20 min for each session. Results: The result shows that both remote and local acupuncture points were beneficial in the pain management and rage of motion when compared within the group. The effects of acupuncture at remote acupoints were better than those at local acupoints in SPADI and ROM when compared between two groups. Conclusion: In treatment of periarthritis of shoulder remote acupuncture points may have higher therapeutic value when compared to local points.

    Abstract
  • Case Report2021-02-28

    Abstract : The present case study illustrates the case of a 47-year-old female (Ms X) with primary progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS) who presented with central post-stroke pain (CPSP) over her left shoulder and underwent acupuncture treatment (AT) since she appeared irresponsive to conventional treatment. The aim of this case study is to explore the effectiveness of acupuncture as a complimentary treatment in improving central neurogenic pain in MS patients affected by CPSP. AT lasted six weeks, some modification of the conventional AT points was required to ensure continuity and safety of the treatment plan. In fact, Ms X suffered from gingivitis that led to hypersensitivity of her left upper limb (UL) to acupuncture needling; moreover, she experienced sensation loss in her legs as a result of post-stroke complications. The outcome showed that the subject’s shoulder range of motion (ROM), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and pain improved remarkably, enabling Ms X to resume post-stroke rehabilitation and reduce her analgesic intake.

    Abstract
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  • Research Article2021-04-30

    Abstract : Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by increased blood sugar levels. The current management of DM to date has a target of controlling blood glucose, but the therapy cannot be separated from long-term drug side effects. Acupuncture can be an option as an adjunct therapy for DM. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness between manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture. Methods: This study was a randomized control experimental study with a pretest and posttest design using 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 4 groups: a normal group, a diabetes group, an acupuncture group, and a laser group. Manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture were performed 6 times in two weeks. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, the cell density of Langerhans islets, and side effects were assessed and compared among the 4 groups. Results: The highest mean cell density of Langerhans islets was found in the laser and acupuncture group, and the lowest was found in the diabetes group. In the post hoc analysis, the normal, acupuncture, and the laser groups had a significantly higher mean cell density than the diabetes group. The lowest mean FBG level was in the laser group, followed by the acupuncture group, and the highest was in the diabetes group, but this difference was not significant. There were no serious side effects from the use of manual acupuncture or laser acupuncture. Conclusion: Both manual acupuncture and laser acupuncture can improve the histological findings of Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic rats, and both are safe to use.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2021-02-28

    Abstract : Background: Pain is a major complaint in cancer patients and a global problem that requires medical attention, including pain in cervical cancer. Although pharmacotherapy has been used for the treatment of cancer pain, there are still around 40% cannot be treated only with pharmacotherapy. Objectives: To determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on pain in stage III cervical cancer patients. Methods: Twenty-eight stage III cervical cancer patients were divided into two groups (14 treatments and 14 controls) with randomized control trial design. The treatment group received EA with a frequency of 2/20-25 Hz at points of ST36, SP6, LI4 and LR3 for 30 minutes, while the control group did not receive EA. Both groups were given paracetamol and codeine at the same dose. Assessment was carried out by measuring pain scale (VAS), plasma β-endorphin levels, and quality of life/QoL (EORTC QLQ-C30) before and after therapy. Results: The average reduction in VAS in the treatment group (2.71 ± 1.14) compared to the control group (0.71 ± 1.33; p < 0.001), average increase in plasma β-endorphin levels in the treatment group (88.57 ± 52.46 pg/ml) compared to the control group (12.86 ± 56.76 pg/ml; p = 0.001), and in QoL, there were significant differences in symptom improvement between the treatment and control groups in the domain of fatigue, pain, insomnia and overall QoL (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Medical therapy combined with EA decreased pain scale, increased plasma β-endorphin levels, and improved the QoL for stage III cervical cancer patients.

    Abstract
  • Case Report2021-02-28

    Abstract : The present case study illustrates the case of a 47-year-old female (Ms X) with primary progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS) who presented with central post-stroke pain (CPSP) over her left shoulder and underwent acupuncture treatment (AT) since she appeared irresponsive to conventional treatment. The aim of this case study is to explore the effectiveness of acupuncture as a complimentary treatment in improving central neurogenic pain in MS patients affected by CPSP. AT lasted six weeks, some modification of the conventional AT points was required to ensure continuity and safety of the treatment plan. In fact, Ms X suffered from gingivitis that led to hypersensitivity of her left upper limb (UL) to acupuncture needling; moreover, she experienced sensation loss in her legs as a result of post-stroke complications. The outcome showed that the subject’s shoulder range of motion (ROM), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and pain improved remarkably, enabling Ms X to resume post-stroke rehabilitation and reduce her analgesic intake.

    Abstract
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