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  • Brief Report2008-12-01
    JAMS

    Patterns of Acupuncture Practice and Acupoint Usage in Brazil: The Fortaleza Experience

    Sergio Botelho Guimarãesa*, Agamenon Honorio da Silvabc, Jorge Montenegro Bragab

    Abstract : ObjectiveThis study is aimed at providing quantitative data on acupoint usage in Fortaleza, Brazil.DesignMedical records from 100 patients subjected to acupuncture treatments from January 2005 through June 2006 were randomly selected for study. Data collected included sex/age, visit numbers, acupoints used and point combination usage.SettingsThe Meireles Acupuncture Outpatient Clinic is part of the Brazilian Health System (SUS) and offers free acupuncture therapy to people living in Fortaleza, the fifth largest city in Brazil.ResultsAnalysis of sex/age distribution showed that female patients were the majority (78%). Ages ranged from 15–88 years (mean, 52 years). The acupoint data were compiled to produce a histogram of the 30 most commonly used acupoints. These 30 points represented 68% of the total number of acupoints needled in Fortaleza. The same value was found in China Beijing Hospital of TCM. The total number of unique points used was 136 in different combinations, totaling 1109 acu-points (average usage, 11 points per patient). Taichong (67%) and Taixi (63%) were the most needled acupoints.ConclusionThe data collected demonstrate that Brazilian medical acupuncturists have a clear cut preference for some specific acupoints, as do their Chinese colleagues.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : This study aimed to understand energy metabolism distribution along the pericardium meridian and verify the correlation between the body surface (points), and classic meridian theory. A highly sensitive CO2 instrument was used to measure the transcutaneous CO2 emission at 13 points along the pericardium meridian line (12 points on the line and one point beyond the line) and 13 control points beside them. Results showed that the distribution of transcutaneous CO2 emission is highly related to the position on the body. Transcutaneous CO2 emission is significantly higher at P7 and P3, than the control points beside them. The points along the meridian and the points beside them were clustered with relative distance by SAS statistics software. Two distance matrixes were then obtained. The correlation coefficients between the points along the line and between the control points were calculated. The results showed that the 13th point beyond the line was far from the 12 points on the line (distance, 0.24), while acupoints on the line clustered earlier when compared with the non-acupoints. The average correlation coefficients among the acu-points was 0.65 which was significantly higher than 0.56, among the non-acupoints. No such characteristics were found among the control points. It was concluded that there is a strong correlativity of energy metabolism activity between the body surfaces along the meridian, and an even stronger correlativity between the acupoints on the meridian.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : The aim of this study was to develop a new method of measuring the meridian energy potential (MEP) at an acupoint with bioelectrical impedance in order to establish an objective meridian diagnosis. To confirm the reflection of the changes in body composition at acupoints, the changes in the MEP on the bladder meridian before, during and after cupping were observed. Additionally, to evaluate the usefulness of diagnosis, the MEP on the stomach meridian before and after a meal was measured. Significant increases were found at every acupoint during cupping and after eating a meal. It was confirmed that the MEP data reflected changes in body composition at every acupoint and that these changes were associated with functioning of the associated internal organs. In conclusion, we propose the usefulness of this method, which can indicate the state of acupoints.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : BackgroundBalance disorders, a widespread problem in the senior population, are very often related to painful musculoskeletal disabilities and/or to degenerative neurologic pathologies. In a previous work, we investigated the beneficial effects of acupuncture such as laser photobiostimulation, regardless of the etiological origin of the balance dysfunction.AimsAttention was focused on two individuals showing balance deficits with different etiologies. One healthy control individual was receiving treatment, one healthy control individual did not receive any treatment. Balance performances were measured before and after ultra-low-level laser (ULLL) stimulation as a basis for the design of further investigations.MethodsRomberg's parameters were measured on a force platform. Of the four tested individuals, one showed dizziness symptoms, one was affected by a mild form of Parkinson's disease, and two showed no dysfunction and were used as controls.ResultsIt was found that a ULLL stimulation of peripheral Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) acupuncture points can be effective, regardless of the pathology.DiscussionA specific clinical analysis of the stability of the beneficial result as a function of homogeneous groups of dysfunctional individuals is needed.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : The purpose of this study was to suggest a new method of estimating acupoint compositions by using a multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) method at 5 kHz, 50 kHz and 200 kHz within 2 cm of acupoints divided into local segments. To verify the system developed, we confirmed the stable occurrence of a constant current at every frequency, regardless of the impedance connected to the electrodes. Moreover, we found left and right distal bicep brachii aponeurosis to be identical by using ultrasound imaging, and we analyzed the repeatability of the findings by making 10 consecutive sets of measurements (p > 0.05). To evaluate the practical use of the acupoint composition, we used the MF-BIA analyzer to measure the left and right LU3, LU4, and LU9 at the lung meridian. We confirmed that the potentials generated were equal to the changes in the cell membrane function, which were caused by the applied frequency (p  0.05). Hence, we conclude that the MF-BIA analyzer can be used to estimate the acupoint composition based on the acupoint state.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Cupping is one of the various treatment methods used in traditional oriental medicine. Cupping is also used as a diagnostic method and it may cause skin hyperpigmentation. Quantitative measurements and analysis of changes in skin color due to cupping are critical. The purpose of this study is to suggest an optical technique to visualize and identify changes in skin color due to cupping. We suggest the following analysis methods: digital color spaces [red, green, and blue (RGB) and L∗a∗b], the Erythema Index (E.I.), and the Melanin Index (M.I.). For experiments, we selected and stimulated 10 acupoints at 80 kilopascals (kPa) per minute. The RGB and L∗a∗b color spaces were observed to be decreased (p 

    Abstract
  • Brief report2016-02-01
    JAMS

    Waiguan Stimulation May Kindle Anticorrelated Brain Networks: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Revisited

    Gustav Wik13*, Yong Huang2, Tongjun Zeng23, Shanshan Qu2, Yu Zheng2, Jiping Zhang2, Xinsheng Lai4*, Chunzhi Tang4, Baoci Shan5

    Abstract : Subtraction of functional magnetic resonance imaging activity data results in a loss of information regarding possible general patterns of brain activation under experimental conditions. We, hence, reanalyzed previous Waiguan acupuncture data to qualitatively elucidate patterns of cerebral correlations to acupuncture and placebo conditions. Healthy individuals (n = 24) were randomly allocated to true and sham Waiguan acupuncture and to true and sham needling of a nonacupuncture point (nonacupoint), and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed during stimulation. Statistical parametric mapping group comparisons revealed clearly different patterns of activation between Waiguan stimulation and the corresponding stimulation of a nonacupoint. The former condition produced less neocortical activation than the nonacupoint stimulation. Cerebellar activation was typically seen only during true Waiguan acupuncture. The reduced neocortical activity during both true and sham Waiguan acupuncture may indicate that this point activates anticorrelated networks, with possible intrinsic healing properties. Cerebellar activation during true Waiguan acupuncture implies the region's influence on healing networks.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : With thousands of years evolution, the human body has developed self-healing properties to recover from disorders. Theoretically, many alternative medicines may work to activate / enhance this self-regulation process. In my talk, I will introduce recent studies on the effects and brain mechanisms of acupuncture, mind-body exercise (Tai Chi and Baduanjin), and imagery on both experimental and chronic pain. Findings of these studies suggest that different alternative interventions may share a common network through which to relieve pain.

  • Research Article2020-12-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Background: Anxiety is a common complaint of patients before diagnostic or therapeutic invasive procedures, especially before open-heart surgery. The most well-known method to reduce anxiety is the use of sedatives, which have pronounced side effects. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acupressure on anxiety in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Method: This is a randomized clinical trial study conducted on 90 patients who were candidates for open-heart surgery. The patients were randomly assigned into either intervention or control groups. Acupressure intervention was applied at three real acupoints over two consecutive days in the intervention group. The control group received acupressure on sham points. We used Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to assess anxiety in our study. Results: The results showed that before acupressure, there was no statistically significant difference between state anxiety scores and intergroup traits, and this difference was only significant in state anxiety after the second intervention. State and trait anxiety were significant before and after the intervention in the test group, respectively include (p < 0.001) (p = 0.01), but these changes in the control group did not show a statistically significant difference. After completing the second phase of the intervention at the actual sites, systolic blood pressure (p = 0.007) and heart rate (p = 0.001) decreased significantly. However, acupressure did not have a significant effect on diastolic blood pressure in any of the groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the application of acupressure in patients who are candidates for open-heart surgery can reduce their state anxiety. Further larger-scale and rigorous studies are warranted.

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
February, 2021
Vol.14 No.1

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Editorial2020-04-01
  • Research Article2020-04-01

    Abstract : Patients with glaucoma can show blood flow anomalies at the eye vessel level. A causal relationship is reasonably expected, but so far, it has not been demonstrated. Traditional Chinese medicine indicates that acupuncture can promote specific blood perfusion in specific body districts. Ninety-eight patients with open-angle glaucoma were treated with an ultralow light–level laser, according to a specific acupuncture protocol, and their blood flow was measured before and after a six-week treatment cycle. Doppler measurements showed significant modifications in both pulsatility and resistivity indexes. The most relevant outcome of this study is that the applied treatment demonstrated its effectiveness not only in vasodilation but also in perfusion control that seems to restore appropriate functionality. The protocol therefore should be investigated in future controlled studies and perhaps in other blood perfusion–related pathologies.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-12-01

    Abstract : Background: Anthropometric and anatomical Chinese inch measurement (CUN) systems are useful in understanding the location of acupoints; however, locating acupoints is challenging. Objectives: The study aimed to locate LI4 and LI6, to measure differences and similarities in body dimensions based on sex using anthropometric and CUN systems, and to observe the relationship between f-cun and b-cun. Methods: 25 forearms and hands from 16 embalmed cadavers had body dimensions measured using anthropometric and CUN systems. LI4 and LI6 were located using a combination of both systems. Data were compiled and calculated to observe any variation in means and ranges. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. Results: LI4 was found on the skin at the lateral border of the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was found 3 cun or 74 ± 8 mm from LI5. Differences were observed between male and female cadavers and a large difference between f-cun and b-cun measurements of 1.5 to 3 cun. There were positive correlations between several body dimensions observed. Conclusions: LI4 was located on the dorsum of the hand, radial to the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was located 3 cun from LI5 with an error of 1 to ½ cun variation. The differences in f-cun and bcun in isolating LI6 seem to account for this error. Future studies using cadavers may need to take this error into consideration for variation and measuring differences.

    Abstract
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  • Research Article2020-12-01

    Abstract : Background: Anxiety is a common complaint of patients before diagnostic or therapeutic invasive procedures, especially before open-heart surgery. The most well-known method to reduce anxiety is the use of sedatives, which have pronounced side effects. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acupressure on anxiety in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Method: This is a randomized clinical trial study conducted on 90 patients who were candidates for open-heart surgery. The patients were randomly assigned into either intervention or control groups. Acupressure intervention was applied at three real acupoints over two consecutive days in the intervention group. The control group received acupressure on sham points. We used Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to assess anxiety in our study. Results: The results showed that before acupressure, there was no statistically significant difference between state anxiety scores and intergroup traits, and this difference was only significant in state anxiety after the second intervention. State and trait anxiety were significant before and after the intervention in the test group, respectively include (p < 0.001) (p = 0.01), but these changes in the control group did not show a statistically significant difference. After completing the second phase of the intervention at the actual sites, systolic blood pressure (p = 0.007) and heart rate (p = 0.001) decreased significantly. However, acupressure did not have a significant effect on diastolic blood pressure in any of the groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the application of acupressure in patients who are candidates for open-heart surgery can reduce their state anxiety. Further larger-scale and rigorous studies are warranted.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-10-01

    The Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Spasticity in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Dian E. Putri 1, *, Adiningsih Srilestari 1, Kemas Abdurrohim 1, Irawan Mangunatmadja 2, Luh K. Wahyuni 3

    Abstract : Background: Spasticity in cerebral palsy is one of the most common disabilities of children in developing countries. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of laser acupuncture on spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with spastic cerebral palsy at 2 to 10 years. The patients were categorized into two groups: the control group and treatment group. Laser acupuncture was applied on GV20, GV14, LI4, GB34, and LR3 (power 50 mW, 785 nm, 1 Joule, 40 seconds) three times a week for 12 sessions in the treatment group and placebo laser acupuncture on the same points in the control group. The spasticity was measured using the Modified Ashworth Scale before and after complete sessions. Results: The results showed that there was a significant reduction in the Modified Ashworth Scale score in the treatment group compared with the control group (p = 0.003). Conclusions: This study suggest that laser acupuncture on GV20, GV14, LI4, GB34, and LR3 can reduce spasticity for children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-04-01

    Single Cupping Thearpy Session Improves Pain, Sleep, and Disability in Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

    Maria P. Volpato1, Izabela C.A. Breda2, Ravena C. de Carvalho2, Caroline de Castro Moura3, Laís L. Ferreira2, Marcelo L. Silva1, Josie R.T. Silva1*

    Abstract : The objective of this study was to evaluate if a single session of real or placebo cupping therapy in patients with chronic low back pain would be enough to temporarily reduce pain intensity and functional disability, enhancing their mechanical threshold and reducing local skin temperature. The outcome measures were Brief Pain Inventory, pressure pain threshold, Roland–Morris disability questionnaire and low back skin temperature. This is an experimental clinical trial; after examination (AV0), patients were submitted to real or placebo cupping therapy (15 minutes, bilaterally at the points BL23 (Shenshu), BL24 (Qihaishu) and BL25 (Dachangshu) and were revaluated immediately after the session (AV1) and after one week (AV2). The patients showed a significant improvement in all pain severity items and sleep in the Brief Pain Inventory (p 

    Abstract
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