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  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Objectives Chronic pain has a definitive lack of objective parameters in the measurement and treatment efficacy of diseases such as inflammatory and fibromyalgia (FM) pain. This disease has indicated a refractory tendency to conventional treatment ventures, largely resultant from a lack of etiological and pathogenic understanding of the disease development. Emerging evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) plays a critical role in the amplification of pain signals. It remains unclear whether or not electroacupuncture (EA) can attenuate the chronic pain associated with inflammatory and FM pain. Methods We examined the contribution of the transient receptor potential vanalloid 1 (TRPV1) channel to inflammatory and fibromyalgia-like pain in inflammatory and intermittent cold-stress (ICS) model, in the prefrontal cortex, somatosensory cortex, hippocampus and thalamus areas of the brain. The potential therapeutic benefits of electroacupuncture (EA) was analysed in order to identify the analgesic effects and mechanism. Results We suggest that TRPV1 upregulation is central to the inflammatory and FM pain induced hyperalgesia and the treatment of EA showed a decrease in these pain induced nociceptive sensitization, suggesting TRPV1 and related nociceptive conduit upregulation and overexpression can be attenuated by EA. The results indicate that EA treatment successfully attenuated both mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. A majority of proteins associated with the nociceptive signalling cascade indicated overexpression in inflammatory and FM pain, which was rescued through the use of EA. The use of TRPV1 knockout mice allowed for a successful blockade of TRPV1 expression, and further served to elucidate the role of the TRPV1 receptor in the development and expression of inflammatory and FM-like pain. This evidence strongly suggests that the TRPV1 signalling pathway and related components may represent promising therapeutic targets for FM treatment. Conclusion Furthermore, the treatment of EA showed a decrease in the inflammatory and FM induced nociceptive sensitization, suggesting TRPV1 upregulation and overexpression can be attenuated by EA at bilateral ST36, and that EA can provide analgesic benefits to patients suffering from inflammatory and FM pain.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-02-01

    Analgesic Effect of Intrathecal Melissa officinalis in the Rat Model of Hot-Water and Formalin-Induced Pain

    Ahmad Rastegarian1, Hassanali Abedi1*, Hossein K. Jahromi2, Safar Zarei1, Arash Nematollahi3, Esrafil Mansouri4, Hadi Sameni2

    Abstract : Melissa officinalis (MO) is one of the oldest herbal medicines commonly used in traditional medicine, which some studies have investigated for its analgesic effect. This study is an attempt to investigate the effects of intrathecal administration of Melissa officinalis on the pain induced by heat and formalin. In this experimental study, 70 male Wistar rats with an average weight of 270-320 g were randomly divided into five groups: control; sham that received 25 μl of saline through the spinal catheter; and three experimental groups that received 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg M. officinalis via the spinal catheter respectively. Five days after catheterization of the spinal cord from the lumbar region under anesthesia, the effects of Intrathecal administration of M. officinalis on heat- and formalin-induced pain were evaluated. Data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. Intrathecal injection of M. officinalis blocked heat-induced pain compared to sham group (p = 0.001). Maximum analgesia was observed 30 min after the injection. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of MO alleviated both acute (p = 0.007) and chronic (p = 0.001) phases of formalin-induced pain. Motor block was not observed in any of the above mentioned groups. The results showed that intrathecal administration of MO could significantly improve hot-water and formalin-induced pain in male Wistar rats.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Strengths of recommendations in clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are informed by the quality of evidence of efficacy and safety, and transformed into decision making by balancing generalizability, availability, affordability, acceptability, direct and indirect costs and the values and preferences of patients, providers and policy makers. There is a paucity of evidence for many Traditional, Complementary and Integrative Medicine (TCIM) interventions and services, however their recognition in CPGs contributes to co-ordinated continuity of care across multiple healthcare settings and enhances evidence-based, person-centered clinical effectiveness and policy decisions. CPG development is a complex process that includes multidisciplinary panels of experts and stakeholder consultation. TCIM experts are required to articulate modifying factors and inform PICO questions, to accurately inform the inclusion of TCIM in CPGs. This scoping and evidence review informed the updated CPG: Deciding palliative and end of life care for people with diabetes. Method A two phased literature search included 1. a scoping review and 2. a rapid systematic review of evidence. Electronic databases and grey literature were systematically searched to clarify modifying factors and shortlist 20 TCIMs of a rapid systematic review of efficacy. Results 209 studies clarified seven key modifying factors including patient preferences; routine use; safe TCIMs for co-morbidities; simultaneous acting TCIMs; high quality evidence of effectiveness or ineffectiveness; risks and logistic feasibility. Evidence-based strong recommendations of the CPG included when to start or continue a TCIM intervention, refer to an appropriately qualified TCIM practitioner and when to stop a TCIM intervention or service. Conclusion Inclusion of TCIM in CPGs requires a systematic approach to the quality of evidence, balanced against patients' values, benefits and harms, available resources, feasibility of the intervention, acceptability by stakeholders and effect on health equity. Inclusion of TCIM in CPGs can provide succinct high-level recommendations that facilitate patient centred evidence-based care and accurately inform evidence-based policy.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Objectives Sasang Constitutional Medicine is uniquely established in the field of Korean Medicine and Eight Constitution Acupuncture which is created upon Sasang constitutional medicine is widely applied in clinics. However, there exist no established theory but hypotheses with regard to the composition of acupoints of constitution acupuncture. The purpose of this study was to compare the acupuncture method between Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Eight Constitution Medicine. Methods We reviewed a total of 11 studies found on various domestic Oriental medicine journals and 7 literature ect. with the key words of Sasang Acupuncture, Eight Constitution Acupuncture and acupoint. Results Among studies and literature chosen, the application of Saam’s acupucture method was many. Eight Constitution Medicine method is applied in the various disease and clinical studies were increased after the year 2000. Conclusion Although there were vulnerable approached to its theoretical and clinical evidence, further study should be followed to establish proper method of constitutional acupuncture.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Healing is a complicated process. Theoretically, it may be made up of three components: the self-healing properties of the body (power of the human body), the non-specific effects of treatment (power of the mind), and the specific effect of physical or pharmacological intervention (power of medicine). The final outcome is the combination of all three components. In my talk, I will introduce 1) the role of the power of the mind in acupuncture and how to apply the power of the mind to enhance the therapeutic effects of treatment, 2) how the mind and body can interact to produce treatment effects using mindful movement (Tai Chi and Baduanjin) as examples, and 3) a novel example demonstrating the power of the mind through imagery and its potential role in pain management.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Korean medical therapy, which use high temperature heat energy, is a cauterization. Cauterization is application of a searing iron to destroy diseased tissue. High level lasers are medical devices that use high temperature heat energy. High level laser are medical devices in which cauterization is modified according to the change of the times. Various laser medical devices are being made to overcome the limitations of the cauterization such as permeability and selectivity.

  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : With the rapid development of AI-related technologies, the importance of high quality big data, which is the core of AI development, is also rapidly increasing. Traditional medicine, however, has a lot of data generated depending on the five senses. In addition, these data are not collected quantitatively, and the level of standardization is also insufficient. This presentation shows how traditional medical treatment technology is currently prepared to participate in the AI era, and what needs to be supplemented in the future.

  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Objectives After the development of Sasang constitutional theory by Dr. Lee Jema, there were several kinds of Acupuncture theory in Korea. In this topic we’d like to look over methods of each treatments to find out better solutions. Methods 1) Outline of each treatments 2) Try to find out the problems in their theory Results 1) There are some problems in their visceral concept application between meridian theory and Sasang constitutional theory. 2) In the case of constitutional acupuncture treatments of Dr. Kwon’s and Dr. Yom’s, they had to provide reasons of choosing different pulse positions as oppose to traditional pulse positions. 3) Differentiating standard for constitution classification based on pulse diagnosis is too subjective. Conclusion We have to try to find out better solutions to cover such problems.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Motivation For humans, breathing is a motor output of respiratory muscles which are controlled by reflex in the respiratory centers of the brain stem as well as behaviorally in supra-brain stem structures including cortical somatosensory/motor regions. While breathing reflex is observed during rest or typically sleep, breathing can be also modulated volitionally like in emotional events as well as speech. The volitional regulation of breathing has an aspect in terms of behavioral coping to external environments or self-control. Our group has been conducting a series of experiments that investigated the beneficial roles of volitional breathing when it is coordinately combined with therapeutic interventions; somatosensory stimulation(acupuncture), motor practice(qigong), cognitive/affective training, and self-control of brain by real-time fMRI neurofeedback. Methods For sensory respiratory coordination, acupuncture stimulation was behaviorally synchronized by volitional breathing (it was internally coordinated by human subjects) and compared with non-coordinated acupuncture stimulation and breathing gated acupuncture stimulation (it was externally coordinated by the device which automatically detects the inhalation and exhalation of breathing and gates the stimulation timing). For motor respiratory coordination, the motor output of skeletal muscles like facial muscles was coordinated with volitional breathing and compared with non-coordinated control tasks. For testing of cognitive enhancement by volitional breathing, the participants conducted emotional working memory task. Their performance weas compared with the task with non-volitional breathing. Lastly, we used the volitional breathing with real-time fMRI neurofeedback technique and are testing the possibility of self-modulation of brain regional activity including amygdala and functional brain connectivity involved in cognitive/affective processing. All the experiments were done in the functional MRI environment. Results and discussion The experiments are still under the analysis or still in progress, we found some interesting and promising findings. We hope the findings provide potential underlying neural mechanisms about its clinical benefits on the various therapeutic interventions; the somatosensory modalities like acupuncture, massage, manipulative techniques, the motor practice modalities like qigong, yoga, meditation, even many other rehabilitations. Funding This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (grant number: K18052).

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Objectives The natural products including traditional herbal medicine (THM) are known to exert their therapeutic effects by acting on multiple targets, so researchers have employed network pharmacology methods to decipher the potential mechanisms of THM. To conduct THM-network pharmacology (THM-NP) studies, researchers have employed different tools and databases for constructing and analyzing herb-compound-target networks. In this study, we attempted to capture the methodological trends in THM-NP research. Methods We identified the tools and databases employed to conduct THM-NP studies and visualized their combinatorial patterns. We also constructed co-author and affiliation networks to further understand how the methodologies are employed among researchers. Results The results showed that the number of THM-NP studies has dramatically increased in the last decade. The databases and tools used for constructing herbal-compound-target networks have been diversified, and their combinatorial patterns have become more complex. Overall, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) was the most frequently employed network pharmacology platform in THM-NP studies. Among the processes involved in THM-NP research, the methodology for constructing a compound-target network has shown the greatest change over time. Conclusion Our analysis describes comprehensive methodological trends and current ideas in research design for network pharmacology researchers.

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
February, 2021
Vol.14 No.1

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Paper2020-10-01

    The Effects of Auriculotherapy on Shoulder Pain After a Cesarean Section

    Abedini Maryam 1, Aminzadeh Fariba 2, Manshoori Azita 2, Bakhtar Babak 3, Sadeghi Tabandeh 4, *

    Abstract : Background: Postcesarean section shoulder pain caused by constrained upper extremity movement limits the maternal activities of breastfeeding and neonatal care. Objectives: This study aims at investigating the effects of auriculotherapy on shoulder pain after a cesarean section. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 90 candidates for a cesarean section were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly allocated into control and intervention groups by the minimization method. In the intervention group, ear seeds were placed on shoulder and muscle relaxation points from two hours prior to surgery until 24 hours after it. In the control group, ear seeds were placed on placebo points. Shoulder pain was assessed on a numerical pain scale in 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups 1 and 6 hours after surgery. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups 24 hours after surgery and the mean pain score was lower in the intervention group (independent t-test, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of auriculotherapy is recommended for the prevention and alleviation of shoulder pain after a cesarean section.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-02-01

    Abstract : The primo vascular system (PVS) is reported to have a periductium composed of cells with spherical or spindle-shaped nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. However, little is known about these periductium cells. In this study, we examined the morphological features of cells covering the PVS tissue isolated from the surface of abdominal organs of rats. By hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, we observed a layer of dark nuclei on the basement membrane at the borders of the sections of primo node (PN), primo vessel (PV), and their subunits. The nuclei appeared thin and linear (10-14 μm), elliptical (8-10 × 3-4 μm), and round (5-7 μm). The borders of the PVS tissue sections were immunostained with a selective antibody for mesothelial cells (MCs). Areas of immunoreactivity overlapped with the flattened cells are shown by hematoxylin and eosin staining. By scanning electron microscopy, we further identified elliptical (11 × 21 μm) and rectangular squamous MCs (length, 10 μm). There were numerous stomata (∼200 nm) and microparticles (20-200 nm) on the surface of the PVS MCs. In conclusion, this study presents the novel finding that the PVS periductium is composed of squamous MCs. These cells tightly line the luminal surface of the PVS tissue, including PNs, PVs, and small branches of the PVs in the abdominal cavity. These results will help us to understand the physiological roles such as hyaluronan secretion and the fine structure of PVS tissue.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-08-01

    Abstract : Background: Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. Depression, anxiety, and stress are associated with knee osteoarthritis. Objectives: The aim of the study was to check the effectiveness of acupressure therapy with pharmacological treatment on pain, depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with knee osteoarthritis and to assess the effect of pain improvement on psychological health. Methods: Eligible 212 patients with knee osteoarthritis were divided into two groups (intervention and control group). The intervention group (n = 106) received acupressure therapy in combination with pharmacological treatment, whereas the control group (n = 106) continued pharmacological treatment only. Pain and psychological symptoms were measured using the visual analog scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Pearson's correlation was used to check the effect of pain improvement on psychological health. Results: Patients of both groups reported severe pain initially. On analyzing the results after completion of the study, it was found that patients in the intervention group scored better on the pain scale (p < 0.001) and DASS-21 (p ≤ 0.0001). However, it may be noted that reduction in the DASS-21 score was not found to be significant for the control group (p = 0.08). Pearson's correlation coefficients value ranged from 0.231 to 0.412 for DASS-21 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: On analysis, it can be concluded that acupressure can be used as add-on therapy in combination with conventional treatment (pharmacological treatment), which may assist in pain reduction. The reduction in pain directly contributes to improvement in the physiological wellness among patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Abstract
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  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01

    Abstract : Motivation For humans, breathing is a motor output of respiratory muscles which are controlled by reflex in the respiratory centers of the brain stem as well as behaviorally in supra-brain stem structures including cortical somatosensory/motor regions. While breathing reflex is observed during rest or typically sleep, breathing can be also modulated volitionally like in emotional events as well as speech. The volitional regulation of breathing has an aspect in terms of behavioral coping to external environments or self-control. Our group has been conducting a series of experiments that investigated the beneficial roles of volitional breathing when it is coordinately combined with therapeutic interventions; somatosensory stimulation(acupuncture), motor practice(qigong), cognitive/affective training, and self-control of brain by real-time fMRI neurofeedback. Methods For sensory respiratory coordination, acupuncture stimulation was behaviorally synchronized by volitional breathing (it was internally coordinated by human subjects) and compared with non-coordinated acupuncture stimulation and breathing gated acupuncture stimulation (it was externally coordinated by the device which automatically detects the inhalation and exhalation of breathing and gates the stimulation timing). For motor respiratory coordination, the motor output of skeletal muscles like facial muscles was coordinated with volitional breathing and compared with non-coordinated control tasks. For testing of cognitive enhancement by volitional breathing, the participants conducted emotional working memory task. Their performance weas compared with the task with non-volitional breathing. Lastly, we used the volitional breathing with real-time fMRI neurofeedback technique and are testing the possibility of self-modulation of brain regional activity including amygdala and functional brain connectivity involved in cognitive/affective processing. All the experiments were done in the functional MRI environment. Results and discussion The experiments are still under the analysis or still in progress, we found some interesting and promising findings. We hope the findings provide potential underlying neural mechanisms about its clinical benefits on the various therapeutic interventions; the somatosensory modalities like acupuncture, massage, manipulative techniques, the motor practice modalities like qigong, yoga, meditation, even many other rehabilitations. Funding This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (grant number: K18052).

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-04-01

    Abstract : The prevalence of elderly dementia and work-related back neck pain is high, and so is the associated cost. Is dementia, which can take 20–30 years to develop, linked to musculoskeletal problems earlier in life? Classic Chinese Medicine Governor Vessel (GV) theory has in fact detailed a correlation, but its acceptance appears to be influenced and even limited by some inconsistences in the literature. This study involved a nationwide online questionnaire of 381 practicing acupuncturists to investigate GV's usage and impact on brain function. The survey covers areas of the acupuncturist's experience, perception of GV usage, related symptoms, needling concerns and correlations with brain function. 39 completed questionnaires were returned, of which 38 were GV users, and nearly three quarters of respondents accepted that GV influences brain function. Only two respondents rejected this influence, but here several inconsistencies were found. The associations with GV were predominately found to be with the spine, kidney, and brain. Indications from practitioners suggested numerous forms of clinical usage of GV, predominately on spinal, cognitive and qi-blood movement issues. GV influence on the brain was accepted by most respondents with only a few expressing uncertainty. Further worldwide, larger population, in-depth studies and trials are needed to fully establish and expand upon these findings.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2019-04-01

    Abstract : A number of studies have examined the accuracy and precision of acupuncture point location across various point location methods. Accuracy of point location is essential for safe, efficacious and reliable treatments and valid reproducible research outcomes. This review aims to identify, summarize, compare and critically appraise available empirical studies relating to the accuracy and precision of acupuncture point location. A comprehensive search of five electronic databases, World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Google scholar was performed for studies investigating accuracy and precision in acupuncture point location. 771 studies were screened of which 14 studies were identified, including 9 studies that investigated the localization of acupoints and 5 studies that examined the cun measurement system. Considerable variation in localization of acupoints was reported among qualified medical acupuncturists. Variation in point location among qualified non-medical acupuncturists is unknown due to lack of any identified study. The directional method was found to be significantly inaccurate and imprecise in all studies that evaluated the method. Suitability of other methods for clinical and research purposes and influencing factors such as education, training and experience were identified as topics for future studies.

    Abstract
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