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  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Objective Although studies on the efficacy of acupuncture treatment have been published in various fields, an understanding of the mechanisms is still insufficient. In particular, some studies on signal transmission have been conducted, but there is little research on the energy transmission. In this study, we observed changes in electrical energy by measuring the biopotential on acupuncture points. Methods The biopotential of five transport points and nearby nonacupuncture points in twelve meridians was measured. The measurement was continuously performed for 10 minutes 4 times (sections 1, 2, 3, and 4) with a 5-minute rest between each measurement. In the acupuncture stimulation experiment, the needle was inserted after section 1 and removed after section 3. After preprocessing the recorded data, the changes in the biopotential level and variability due to acupuncture stimulation were examined, and the biopotential difference between the acupuncture and the nonacupuncture points was compared. Results The biopotential tended to increase after acupuncture stimulation at well, brook, and stream points but tended to decrease at river and sea points. Additionally, the variability in biopotential increased considerably after acupuncture stimulation, which means that the electrical activity of the acupuncture point was increased by acupuncture stimulation. Finally, the biopotential of the brook point was lower than that of the nonacupuncture point beside it, whereas the biopotential of the river point was higher than that of the nonacupuncture point beside it. These results suggested that an electric field at the brook point was formed in the direction from the nonacupuncture point to the acupuncture point and reversed at the river point. Conclusion The distribution and changes in biopotential at five transport points are consistent with the energy flow theory in Korean medicine. Thus, the study on biopotentials can provide a foundation for research on energy flow mechanisms in Korean medicine.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Although researches on the primo vascular system (PVS) were mainly done with mice and rats there have been some experiments with other animals such as rabbits, dogs, pigs, sheep, cow and horses. Especially rabbits were used by BongHan Kim, the discoverer of the PVS, and in the beginning of the author’s laboratory because of the size of the animal is convenient for the observation of the PVS. Other animals than rabbits, rats and mice were only sporadically used for the PVS of some specific organs. The sizes and structures of the PVS of the various animals were similar despite the different sizes of the animals. The staining properties of their PVS were also same. Thus, the PVS seemed a universal anatomic structure of animals like blood or lymph vessels. In this presentation we propose the methods to detect and observe the PVS network throughout an animal’s entire body and the criteria for identification of the PVS samples. In addition, we introduce a clinical palpation technique which was developed or inspired by the motility characteristics of the PVS.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : There have been numerous psychological and psychiatric terms recorded in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) bibliographies, developing a TCM specialty called mental-emotional diseases, where symptomatology, etiology, psychopathology, and various therapies are well established. Acupuncture and related therapies, such as acupressure, moxibustion, massage, cupping, scraping, psychological consultant, exercise therapy (e.g., tai-qi), meditation, and mindfulness were often used in the management of mental disease and wellbeing in early days. These therapies also have been increasingly introduced into today’s clinical practice of psychiatry, aiming to enhance the clinical efficacy, reduce side effects associated with conventional treatment, and comorbid symptoms. Over the past two decades, the speaker and other researchers have published a large number of clinical trials that have demonstrated the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of insomnia, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), cognitive impairment, drug abuse, and psychotic disorders. Neuroimaging, neurochemical, and omic evidence further reveals the underlying mechanisms of psychotropic effects of acupuncture. This talk will provide an overview of ancient TCM psychological concepts and therapies, evidence-based findings obtained from preclinical and clinical studies, and the putative mechanisms of acupuncture effects in the treatment of psychological and mental diseases.

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  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Objectives Chronic pain has a definitive lack of objective parameters in the measurement and treatment efficacy of diseases such as inflammatory and fibromyalgia (FM) pain. This disease has indicated a refractory tendency to conventional treatment ventures, largely resultant from a lack of etiological and pathogenic understanding of the disease development. Emerging evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) plays a critical role in the amplification of pain signals. It remains unclear whether or not electroacupuncture (EA) can attenuate the chronic pain associated with inflammatory and FM pain. Methods We examined the contribution of the transient receptor potential vanalloid 1 (TRPV1) channel to inflammatory and fibromyalgia-like pain in inflammatory and intermittent cold-stress (ICS) model, in the prefrontal cortex, somatosensory cortex, hippocampus and thalamus areas of the brain. The potential therapeutic benefits of electroacupuncture (EA) was analysed in order to identify the analgesic effects and mechanism. Results We suggest that TRPV1 upregulation is central to the inflammatory and FM pain induced hyperalgesia and the treatment of EA showed a decrease in these pain induced nociceptive sensitization, suggesting TRPV1 and related nociceptive conduit upregulation and overexpression can be attenuated by EA. The results indicate that EA treatment successfully attenuated both mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. A majority of proteins associated with the nociceptive signalling cascade indicated overexpression in inflammatory and FM pain, which was rescued through the use of EA. The use of TRPV1 knockout mice allowed for a successful blockade of TRPV1 expression, and further served to elucidate the role of the TRPV1 receptor in the development and expression of inflammatory and FM-like pain. This evidence strongly suggests that the TRPV1 signalling pathway and related components may represent promising therapeutic targets for FM treatment. Conclusion Furthermore, the treatment of EA showed a decrease in the inflammatory and FM induced nociceptive sensitization, suggesting TRPV1 upregulation and overexpression can be attenuated by EA at bilateral ST36, and that EA can provide analgesic benefits to patients suffering from inflammatory and FM pain.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Goal Compare and analyze the indicators of clinical neurological examination, MRI, auricular, su-jok diagnosis in patients after a stroke and with chronic cerebrovascular disorder to further substantiate the use of complementary methods in clinical practice, primarily as an express method. Objectives and methods Group І-56 patients after a stroke in the early residual period, age 64 ± 7.1, including 23 men and 31 women. 48 (85.7%) patients had a stroke in the carotid vascular basin, 8 (14.3%) - in vertebral-basilar. Group II-30 patients with signs of chronic cerebrovascular disorders. All patients underwent clinical-neurological examination, MRI-examination, assessment of the condition of the auricula (skin and subcutaneous tissues) and the assessment of the distal phalanges of the thumbs and the hallux - their circumference at the level of the middle of the nail plate in mm was measured. All indicators were compared among each patient and I-II group indicators were compared with the data of 30 patients without vascular pathology of the brain. Results Clinical and neurological examination, which included the collection of complaints, anamnesis, the evaluation of objective indicators and MRI brain examination, verified the presence of a stroke and / or presence of chronic cerebrovascular disorders. All patients (100%) of first and second groups, regardless of gender and age, had trophic changes of varying degrees of severity in the area of the earlobe, ear antitragus, scaphoid fossa, posterior ear furrow, hypotrophy on both sides, more pronounced homolateral foci of a stroke, the presence of Frank's furrow, mesh in the form of shallow furrows, excoriations in the area of the anti-tragus. Compliance of the changes was observed depending on the localization of the stroke: shallow furrows with vertebro-basilar strokes in the upper part of the ear lobe, the carotid stroke - in the mid-lower part. In 62%, there was a sharp change in the color of the skin of the auricle at the level of the posterior auricle furrows and the edges of the earlobe (from red to ischemic pale). 83% had hypotrophy of the skin in the posterior auricle furrow, indicating vertebrogenic effects on cerebral dyscirculation. There were also sensitivity and trophic changes in the distal phalanxes of the thumb and the hallux compared by measuring at left and right in mm. Interestingly, the presence of stroke and chronic cerebral disorders without stroke was also accompanied by trophic and ischemic changes in the auricular and the thumb and the hallux, but differed significantly in the severity of manifestations, indicating the presence of precursors of strokes and the ability to predict them. These trophic changes were absent in patients without signs of cerebral circulation. Conclusions For the verification of vascular pathology of the brain and prediction of stroke, as well as the evaluation of the effectiveness of rehabilitation, it is advisable to use as a rapid-test auricular and su-joke diagnosis.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : This study investigates whether visual deprivation influences participants' accuracy in differentiating between real and sham acupuncture needles. It also evaluates the relative contributions of tactile, visual, and auditory cues that participants use in their decision-making processes. In addition, a simple sensory decision-making model for research using acupuncture sham devices as comparative controls is proposed. Forty healthy individuals underwent two conditions (blindfolded and sighted) in random sequence. Four sham and four real needles were randomly applied to the participants' lower limb acupoints (ST32 to ST39). Participants responded which needle type was applied. Participants then verbally answered a questionnaire on which sensory cues influenced their decision-making. The proportion of correct judgments, P(C), was calculated to indicate the participants' accuracy in distinguishing between the needle types. Visual deprivation did not significantly influence the participants' discrimination accuracy. Tactile cues were the dominant sensory modality used in decision-making, followed by visual and auditory cues. Sharp and blunt sensations were associated with the real and sham needles, respectively, for both conditions. This study confirmed that tactile cues were the main sensory modalities used in participant decision-making during acupuncture administration. Also, short-term blindfolding of participants during procedures will unlikely influence blinding effectiveness. Clinical trial registration number Not applicable. This study does not fall under the definition of a clinical trial under the ICMJE guidelines.

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  • Research Article2020-02-01

    Abstract : This study evaluates the effects of a short-term Cardio Tai Chi program on the cardiorespiratory fitness and hemodynamic parameters in sedentary adults. Thirty-one sedentary participants (age: 58 ± 9 years, body mass: 63 ± 12 kg) were subjected to an exercise program during 10 sessions over a 10-day period within 2 weeks. The Cardio Tai Chi program consisted in a series of three to five intervals lasting 90 s each at ∼70% maximal heart rate separated by 2-min of low-intensity recovery. Primary outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake, V˙O2peak) assessed by the Rockport walking test and resting hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse pressures). We observed a significant difference of means on post-pre V˙O2peak [4.5 ml/kg/min, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.1 to 5.8, p = 0.004], systolic blood pressure (-5.5 mmHg, 95% CI:-7.3 to -3.8, p = 0.010) and pulse pressure (-3.7 mmHg, 95% CI: -5.2 to -2.3, p = 0.028). No significant differences were observed for diastolic pressure (−1.8 mmHg, 95% CI: -2.6 to -1.0, p = 0.226), mean blood pressure (2.5 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.4 to 3.6, p = 0.302), or resting heart rate (-0.9 beat/min, 95% CI: -2.0 to 0.1, p = 0.631). Our findings suggest that engaging in a short-term Cardio Tai Chi program can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and hemodynamic parameters in sedentary adults.

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  • Research Article2020-02-01

    Analgesic Effect of Intrathecal Melissa officinalis in the Rat Model of Hot-Water and Formalin-Induced Pain

    Ahmad Rastegarian1, Hassanali Abedi1*, Hossein K. Jahromi2, Safar Zarei1, Arash Nematollahi3, Esrafil Mansouri4, Hadi Sameni2

    Abstract : Melissa officinalis (MO) is one of the oldest herbal medicines commonly used in traditional medicine, which some studies have investigated for its analgesic effect. This study is an attempt to investigate the effects of intrathecal administration of Melissa officinalis on the pain induced by heat and formalin. In this experimental study, 70 male Wistar rats with an average weight of 270-320 g were randomly divided into five groups: control; sham that received 25 μl of saline through the spinal catheter; and three experimental groups that received 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg M. officinalis via the spinal catheter respectively. Five days after catheterization of the spinal cord from the lumbar region under anesthesia, the effects of Intrathecal administration of M. officinalis on heat- and formalin-induced pain were evaluated. Data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. Intrathecal injection of M. officinalis blocked heat-induced pain compared to sham group (p = 0.001). Maximum analgesia was observed 30 min after the injection. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of MO alleviated both acute (p = 0.007) and chronic (p = 0.001) phases of formalin-induced pain. Motor block was not observed in any of the above mentioned groups. The results showed that intrathecal administration of MO could significantly improve hot-water and formalin-induced pain in male Wistar rats.

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  • Research Paper2019-12-01

    Comparative Analgesia Between Acupuncture and Dipyrone in Odontalgia

    Talita B. de Almeida, Vera L.R. Zotelli, Ronaldo S. Wada, Maria L.R. Sousa*

    Abstract : The aim of this study was to assess whether the effectiveness of acupuncture is similar to the use of analgesics in the management of toothache. The research included 56 volunteers who were divided into 4 groups: Real Acupuncture group, Placebo Acupuncture group, Real Dipyrone group, and Placebo Dipyrone group. The interventions of the study were performed before the dental care. Inclusion criteria were toothache of pulpal origin with pain scale (Visual Analogue Scale) above 4, absence of medication for the pain, and aged over 18 years. The Real Acupuncture volunteers received a session of acupuncture using piercing needles, while volunteers from the Placebo Acupuncture group received an acupuncture session using non-piercing sham needles. Volunteers from the Real Dipyrone group received a dipyrone tablet and the Placebo Acupuncture group received a tablet with no active ingredient. Before any therapeutic intervention, we collected samples from the volunteers’ saliva to analyze the salivary cortisol, the volunteers rated the intensity of their pain using VAS, and we measured their energy level by the Ryodoraku method. After 20 minutes of treatment, all the volunteers’ analysis parameters were collected again. The Real Acupuncture group presented a greater reduction of VAS than the reduction obtained by the Real Dipyrone group (p

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  • Case Report2019-12-01

    Abstract : Cervicogenic somatic tinnitus is a subtype of subjective tinnitus and is defined as tinnitus in which forceful contractions of jaw and neck muscles modulate its psychoacoustic attributes. Various physical therapies have been proposed for the treatment of somatosensory tinnitus although there is no definitive cure for it. This report describes the use of acupuncture in the treatment of a 71-year-old woman with chronic neck pain who suffered from a left-sided tinnitus for 2 years as well. The tinnitus and neck pain severity was rated as 7 and 6, respectively, on a numeric rating scale of 10. On examination, she had restricted cervical range of motion and several myofascial trigger points in cervical muscles. Audiometric tests of the patient were normal. She received trigger point acupuncture of cervical muscles twice per week for 10 sessions. Her tinnitus completely disappeared after the third session and did not return during the 5-year follow-up. Her neck pain intensity also decreased to 1 on the numeric rating scale after 10 sessions. Based on the results of this study, direct trigger point acupuncture of cervical muscles may be beneficial in the treatment of somatic tinnitus with a long-duration effect.

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Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
February, 2021
Vol.14 No.1

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01

    Abstract : Respiratory inflammation is a frequent and fatal pathologic state encountered in veterinary medicine. Although diluted bee venom (dBV) has potent anti-inflammatory effects, the clinical use of dBV is limited to several chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study was designed to propose an acupoint dBV treatment as a novel therapeutic strategy for respiratory inflammatory disease. Experimental pleurisy was induced by injection of carrageenan into the left pleural space in mouse. The dBV was injected into a specific lung meridian acupoint (LU5) or into an arbitrary non-acupoint located near the midline of the back in mouse. The inflammatory responses were evaluated by analyzing inflammatory indicators in pleural exudate. The dBV injection into the LU5 acupoint significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced increase of pleural exudate volume, leukocyte accumulation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover, dBV acupoint treatment effectively inhibited the production of IL-1β, but not TNF-α in the pleural exudate. On the other hand, dBV treatment at non-acupoint did not inhibit the inflammatory responses in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The present results demonstrate that dBV stimulation in the LU5 lung meridian acupoint can produce significant anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induced pleurisy suggesting that dBV acupuncture may be a promising alternative medicine therapy for respiratory inflammatory diseases.

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  • Research Article2020-02-01

    Abstract : The primo vascular system (PVS) is reported to have a periductium composed of cells with spherical or spindle-shaped nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. However, little is known about these periductium cells. In this study, we examined the morphological features of cells covering the PVS tissue isolated from the surface of abdominal organs of rats. By hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, we observed a layer of dark nuclei on the basement membrane at the borders of the sections of primo node (PN), primo vessel (PV), and their subunits. The nuclei appeared thin and linear (10-14 μm), elliptical (8-10 × 3-4 μm), and round (5-7 μm). The borders of the PVS tissue sections were immunostained with a selective antibody for mesothelial cells (MCs). Areas of immunoreactivity overlapped with the flattened cells are shown by hematoxylin and eosin staining. By scanning electron microscopy, we further identified elliptical (11 × 21 μm) and rectangular squamous MCs (length, 10 μm). There were numerous stomata (∼200 nm) and microparticles (20-200 nm) on the surface of the PVS MCs. In conclusion, this study presents the novel finding that the PVS periductium is composed of squamous MCs. These cells tightly line the luminal surface of the PVS tissue, including PNs, PVs, and small branches of the PVs in the abdominal cavity. These results will help us to understand the physiological roles such as hyaluronan secretion and the fine structure of PVS tissue.

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  • Research Article2020-08-01

    Abstract : Background: Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. Depression, anxiety, and stress are associated with knee osteoarthritis. Objectives: The aim of the study was to check the effectiveness of acupressure therapy with pharmacological treatment on pain, depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with knee osteoarthritis and to assess the effect of pain improvement on psychological health. Methods: Eligible 212 patients with knee osteoarthritis were divided into two groups (intervention and control group). The intervention group (n = 106) received acupressure therapy in combination with pharmacological treatment, whereas the control group (n = 106) continued pharmacological treatment only. Pain and psychological symptoms were measured using the visual analog scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Pearson's correlation was used to check the effect of pain improvement on psychological health. Results: Patients of both groups reported severe pain initially. On analyzing the results after completion of the study, it was found that patients in the intervention group scored better on the pain scale (p < 0.001) and DASS-21 (p ≤ 0.0001). However, it may be noted that reduction in the DASS-21 score was not found to be significant for the control group (p = 0.08). Pearson's correlation coefficients value ranged from 0.231 to 0.412 for DASS-21 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: On analysis, it can be concluded that acupressure can be used as add-on therapy in combination with conventional treatment (pharmacological treatment), which may assist in pain reduction. The reduction in pain directly contributes to improvement in the physiological wellness among patients with knee osteoarthritis.

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  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01

    Abstract : Motivation For humans, breathing is a motor output of respiratory muscles which are controlled by reflex in the respiratory centers of the brain stem as well as behaviorally in supra-brain stem structures including cortical somatosensory/motor regions. While breathing reflex is observed during rest or typically sleep, breathing can be also modulated volitionally like in emotional events as well as speech. The volitional regulation of breathing has an aspect in terms of behavioral coping to external environments or self-control. Our group has been conducting a series of experiments that investigated the beneficial roles of volitional breathing when it is coordinately combined with therapeutic interventions; somatosensory stimulation(acupuncture), motor practice(qigong), cognitive/affective training, and self-control of brain by real-time fMRI neurofeedback. Methods For sensory respiratory coordination, acupuncture stimulation was behaviorally synchronized by volitional breathing (it was internally coordinated by human subjects) and compared with non-coordinated acupuncture stimulation and breathing gated acupuncture stimulation (it was externally coordinated by the device which automatically detects the inhalation and exhalation of breathing and gates the stimulation timing). For motor respiratory coordination, the motor output of skeletal muscles like facial muscles was coordinated with volitional breathing and compared with non-coordinated control tasks. For testing of cognitive enhancement by volitional breathing, the participants conducted emotional working memory task. Their performance weas compared with the task with non-volitional breathing. Lastly, we used the volitional breathing with real-time fMRI neurofeedback technique and are testing the possibility of self-modulation of brain regional activity including amygdala and functional brain connectivity involved in cognitive/affective processing. All the experiments were done in the functional MRI environment. Results and discussion The experiments are still under the analysis or still in progress, we found some interesting and promising findings. We hope the findings provide potential underlying neural mechanisms about its clinical benefits on the various therapeutic interventions; the somatosensory modalities like acupuncture, massage, manipulative techniques, the motor practice modalities like qigong, yoga, meditation, even many other rehabilitations. Funding This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (grant number: K18052).

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  • Research Article2020-04-01

    Abstract : The prevalence of elderly dementia and work-related back neck pain is high, and so is the associated cost. Is dementia, which can take 20–30 years to develop, linked to musculoskeletal problems earlier in life? Classic Chinese Medicine Governor Vessel (GV) theory has in fact detailed a correlation, but its acceptance appears to be influenced and even limited by some inconsistences in the literature. This study involved a nationwide online questionnaire of 381 practicing acupuncturists to investigate GV's usage and impact on brain function. The survey covers areas of the acupuncturist's experience, perception of GV usage, related symptoms, needling concerns and correlations with brain function. 39 completed questionnaires were returned, of which 38 were GV users, and nearly three quarters of respondents accepted that GV influences brain function. Only two respondents rejected this influence, but here several inconsistencies were found. The associations with GV were predominately found to be with the spine, kidney, and brain. Indications from practitioners suggested numerous forms of clinical usage of GV, predominately on spinal, cognitive and qi-blood movement issues. GV influence on the brain was accepted by most respondents with only a few expressing uncertainty. Further worldwide, larger population, in-depth studies and trials are needed to fully establish and expand upon these findings.

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  • Review Article2019-04-01

    Abstract : A number of studies have examined the accuracy and precision of acupuncture point location across various point location methods. Accuracy of point location is essential for safe, efficacious and reliable treatments and valid reproducible research outcomes. This review aims to identify, summarize, compare and critically appraise available empirical studies relating to the accuracy and precision of acupuncture point location. A comprehensive search of five electronic databases, World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Google scholar was performed for studies investigating accuracy and precision in acupuncture point location. 771 studies were screened of which 14 studies were identified, including 9 studies that investigated the localization of acupoints and 5 studies that examined the cun measurement system. Considerable variation in localization of acupoints was reported among qualified medical acupuncturists. Variation in point location among qualified non-medical acupuncturists is unknown due to lack of any identified study. The directional method was found to be significantly inaccurate and imprecise in all studies that evaluated the method. Suitability of other methods for clinical and research purposes and influencing factors such as education, training and experience were identified as topics for future studies.

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