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  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Saam five element acupuncture (SA) was developed by Saam Doin in the 17th century during Chosun Dynasty of Korea. It is often called as four-needle technique or five element acupuncture in other countries. The principle is originated from Nanjing (The classic of difficulties) Chapter 69. For example, if liver meridian is in deficiency, reinforce the water as mother to boost its child wood. Saam added reducing the metal as wood’s controller to block metal’s suppressing effect on wood. On the contrary, if liver meridian is in excess, reduce the child fire to consume wood energy by fire in the nourishing cycle. Saam added reinforcing the metal to strengthen metal’s control over wood. In my opinion, there can be three ways to select the target treatment meridian; the pathway of meridian, five element theory, and six energy system. SA is a meridian-based approach using five element points. Its strength is a holistic and systematic balancing of organ functions rather than pure stimulation on the local lesion. It is a treasure of Korean acupuncture which needs to be inherited and developed for more active application to various disorders.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Objectives We investigated the efficacy and safety of thread-embedding acupuncture (TEA) for chronic low back pain (LBP) in a randomized controlled pilot trial with the aim of laying the foundation for a large-scale randomized controlled trial on this topic. Methods Forty participants were recruited for two-arm, assessor-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial. The participants were randomly allocated to a TEA group (experimental group) or an acupuncture group (control group). The TEA group received TEA once every 2 weeks for 8 weeks (four sessions in total), while the acupuncture group received acupuncture twice per week for 8 weeks (16 sessions in total). The primary outcome was the visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain and the secondary outcomes were short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. Assessments were performed at screening and at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks after treatment initiation (the 10-week assessment was conducted at 2 weeks after treatment cessation). Results Of the 40 participants, 36 completed the study and four dropped out. Both the TEA group and the acupuncture group showed significant improvements in VAS, SF-MPQ, and ODI scores in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, with regard to ODI, a significant interaction between group and time was observed, with the two groups exhibiting a different pattern of change at 8 weeks according to contrast analysis with Bonferroni’s correction. No serious adverse event occurred, and hematological and biochemical test findings were within normal limits. Conclusion This pilot study has provided basic data for a larger clinical trial to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of TEA for chronic LBP.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Essential hypertension a multifactorial pathophysiological condition involves many systems including the sympathetic nervous system. Increased sympathetic activity contributes to the elevation of blood pressure during sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular reflex responses as well as in hypertension. We have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) reduces sympathoexcitation and both reflex elevations of blood pressure and hypertension in animals and humans. In addition, EA reduces sympathoexcitatory blood pressure responses in hypertensive subjects. Elevated blood pressure also is reduced with manual acupuncture and moxibustion. Hypothalamic to medullary cardiovascular regions in the brain process the actions of EA, manual acupuncture and moxibustion involving specific mechanisms during sympathoexcitation. Recent investigations focused on the peripheral mechanisms at the acupoint site during EA, manual acupuncture and moxibustion. We hypothesized that the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) peripheral local mechanism at the acupoint site is involved in the blood pressure lowering effect. In anesthetized rats using neurophysiology, siRNA, pharmacology, immunohistochemistry and hemodynamic responses, our data show that peripheral local TRPV1 participates during the blood pressure lowering effect with manual acupuncture and heat sensitive moxibustion but not EA. Mechano sensitive TRPV1 contributes to manual acupuncture activating peripheral somatosensory nerves. In contrast, EA-induced increase of somatosensory activity is not affected by blockade of TRPV1 at the site of acupoint. Similarly, TRPV1 knockdown in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) reduced activation of the peripheral DRG neurons during manual acupuncture but not EA. Sympathoexcitatory increase in blood pressure is reduced by acupoint specific moxibustion through local heat sensitive TRPV1 but not EA. In aggregate, EA, manual acupuncture and moxibustion applied at specific acupoints employ different peripheral local mechanisms to reduce elevated blood pressure and over-excitation of sympathetic activity.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Visceral pain produces hypersensitive spots on the skin (neurogenic spots), caused by cutaneous neurogenic inflammation, in the dermatome that overlaps with visceral afferent innervation; the spots can be visualized experimentally on the skin by extravasation of Evans blue dye. Here, we show that an acupoint is one form of neurogenic inflammation on the skin. Various studies have demonstrated that acupoints show mechanical hypersensitivity and have high electrical conductance. Stimulation of acupoints produces needling sensations caused by activation of small afferent fibers and therapeutic effects on the associated visceral organs, likely due to the release of endogenous opioids. The present study provides experimental evidence that neurogenic spots exhibit all the characteristics of the acupoints listed above. In addition, the stimulation of neurogenic spots by electrical, mechanical, or chemical means alleviated pathological conditions in rat colitis and hypertension models via endogenous opioid systems. Blocking NK1R in neurogenic spots prevented the acupuncture effects. Elevated substance P and CGRP caused low electrical resistance in neurogenic spots as well as acupoints. Our results demonstrate that an acupoint is identical to a neurogenic inflammatory spot on the skin, which is produced by activation of somatic C-fiber terminals in abnormal conditions of visceral organs. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT)(No.2018R1A5A2025272 and 2018R1D1A1B07046196), KBRI basic research program through Korea Brain Research Institute funded by Ministry of Science and ICT (18-BR-03) and Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) K18181.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Objective Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the representative drugs abused world widely and the reinforcing effect is exerted by the increase of dopamine (DA) release in the mesolimbic system. Acupuncture has been used for thousands of years to treat diverse disease including neuropsychiatric problems and been shown to be effective in the suppression of intravenous METH self-administration. Ja-Geum-Jung, a kind of herbal formula of Korean medicine, was reported to be effective for the atopic dermatitis. The present investigated if the combination of acupuncture and Ja-Geum-Jung could be better than alone treatment. Materials and methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) intraperitoneally and the locomotor activity and ultrasound vocalization (USV) expression were measured. Electrophysiological methods were used to investigate a possible neuronal mechanism in the brain. Results Ja-Geum-Jung attenuated METH induced increases in the locomotor activity and USV. Acupuncture enhanced these effects showing a synergistic effect in the combination with Ja-Geum-Jung. Also, amygdala was shown to be involved in these effects. Conclusion Combination of acupuncture and herbal formula has been demonstrated to make better effects than alone treatment on the METH, in parallel with the experience of thousands of years in the Eastern Asia.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Objectives This study is a preliminary study to investigate the possibility of clinical study of electric moxibustion in breast cancer patients with upper limb lymphedema. It has been reported that about 20% of patients suffer from chronic lymphedema after breast cancer surgery. In general, compression therapy, physical therapy, mild exercise, and massage are suggested to improve the symptoms. However, if the symptom persists, it can cause stiffness of the shoulder joints and may interfere with the quality of life. Although there has been a series of studies showing that acupuncture may be an effective treatment, invasive stimulations are generally avoided with patients with lymphedema. Therefore, other possible treatment for the chronic lymphedema is needed. Methods To investigate the feasibility of electric moxibustion in the treatment of upper limb lymphedema, subjects who completed primary cancer treatment at least 6 months ago and has more than 10 mm differences of arm circumference between both upper limbs were included in this study. All subjects were assigned to the treatment group. Subjects were treated with 16 times (30 minutes / times) of electric moxibustion for 8 weeks and was evaluated at baseline, week 5, 9 and 13. For the outcome measures, circumferences of upper limbs, edema index, shoulder range of motions (ROM) and quality of life were assessed before and after the study. Results Eight female participants who completed the study were included in the analyses. The mean age was 50.9 (ranging from 44 to 62) and the mean body mass index was 24.5mg/k2 (ranging from 19.8 to 31.4). Lymphedema patients in dominant side of the upper limb were 3 (37.5%). After 8 weeks of electric moxibustion treatment, the difference in the circumference between both arms decreased significantly. The mean reduction of circumference difference was 8.38mm (95% CI, 0.98-15.77; p = 0.032). The mean difference in flexion ROM between both arms was 13.58 degrees (95% CI, 4.30-22.85; p = 0.011). There were 6 adverse events and most of them were irrelevant to the treatment (upper respiratory infection, back pain, etc.). Only one participant had mild burn on the acupuncture point. Conclusion Here we demonstrate for the first time that electric moxibustion treatment is a feasible treatment for upper-limb lymphedema after breast cancer surgery. We found that electric moxibustion may reduce difference in upper limb circumference and improve shoulder ROM. Future comparative clinical trial is needed to confirm the clinical effectiveness of the treatment.

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  • Research Article2020-03-18
    JAMS

    Abstract : Background and objectiveNeedle insertion pain during spinal anesthesia is an unpleasant experience for patients. This study aimed to investigate the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the pain intensity during the insertion of spinal needles in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia at ImamReza hospital in Kermanshah, Iran, in 2018.Materials and methodsIn a double-blind clinical trial, 60 candidates for elective transureteral lithotripsy surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The electrodes of the TENS device were placed in the space between L3-L4 and L5-S1 vertebrae. The intensity of pain during insertion of the spinal needle by visual analog scale and the frequency of attempts were recorded. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 19.ResultsThe study samples were 41.66% female and 58.33% male. The mean age of the study samples was 34.26 ± 5.07 and 32.8 ± 5.28 in the control and intervention group, respectively. The pain intensity during insertion of spinal needles was less significant in the intervention group compared with the control group (p = 0.001). The number of attempts to insert the spinal needle between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.51). The duration of implementation spinal anesthesia procedure by physician was less significant in the intervention group (p = 0.001).ConclusionAccording to the results of the study, the use of TENS effectively reduced the pain of spinal needle insertion. Considering these beneficial effects, it is suggested that this procedure be used to relive pain in patients with spinal anesthesia.

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  • Research Article2020-02-01

    Abstract : The primo vascular system (PVS) is reported to have a periductium composed of cells with spherical or spindle-shaped nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. However, little is known about these periductium cells. In this study, we examined the morphological features of cells covering the PVS tissue isolated from the surface of abdominal organs of rats. By hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, we observed a layer of dark nuclei on the basement membrane at the borders of the sections of primo node (PN), primo vessel (PV), and their subunits. The nuclei appeared thin and linear (10-14 μm), elliptical (8-10 × 3-4 μm), and round (5-7 μm). The borders of the PVS tissue sections were immunostained with a selective antibody for mesothelial cells (MCs). Areas of immunoreactivity overlapped with the flattened cells are shown by hematoxylin and eosin staining. By scanning electron microscopy, we further identified elliptical (11 × 21 μm) and rectangular squamous MCs (length, 10 μm). There were numerous stomata (∼200 nm) and microparticles (20-200 nm) on the surface of the PVS MCs. In conclusion, this study presents the novel finding that the PVS periductium is composed of squamous MCs. These cells tightly line the luminal surface of the PVS tissue, including PNs, PVs, and small branches of the PVs in the abdominal cavity. These results will help us to understand the physiological roles such as hyaluronan secretion and the fine structure of PVS tissue.

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  • Research Paper2019-10-01

    Pressuring of Acupoints as a Complement to the Diagnosis of Stifle Diseases in Horses

    Luiza P.R. Mariani1, Flávia Sampaio2, Andressa B. Silveira23, Luis F. Bastos4, Saulo H. Weber1, Pedro V. Michelotto1*

    Abstract : Diseases of the stifle joint remain a challenge for veterinarians. The objective of this study was to achieve a valuable acupuncture suggestive diagnosis to be considered for stifle joint diseases in horses. Thirty-nine nonlame horses involved in different activities were assessed. Acupuncture was independently performed by two evaluators. Reactions of the animal when pressurizing the point suggestive of stifle disease (PSSD), Bladder-20 and/or Bladder-21, were considered as the inclusion criteria for inclusion in the stifle group (SG, n = 31), and the animals with no reactions were assigned to the control group (n = 8). Radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were performed and evaluated by two independent professionals blinded to the group allocation. Thermographic examination of the PSSD and stifles was also performed, after acclimatization. The ultrasound scores and radiographic findings were higher in the SG than in the control group. Thermography evidenced increased temperature in the PSSD and stifles in the SG. The minimum acupuncture diagnostic criteria for stifle joint disease had a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 57.0%, and the addition of the acupoints Gallbladder–dorsal tuber coxae, Gallbladder-27, and Spleen-13 to the minimum diagnostic criteria improved sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, assessing the reaction at the demonstrated acupoints can facilitate a diagnosis of a potential stifle lesion.

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  • Research Article2019-06-01

    Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation of PC5 and PC6 Acupoints Modulates Autonomic Balance in Heart Transplant Patients: A Pilot Study

    Beatriz R. Moreira1, Alice P. Duque2, Carole S. Massolar2, Rodrigo de Lima Pimentel2, Mauro F.F. Mediano34, Tereza C.F. Guimarães3, Luiz F. Rodrigues Jr.12*

    Abstract : The increased resting heart rate (HR) in heart transplant patients is associated with enhanced metabolic demand, the potential for fatigue, and lower quality of life. In the present study, we hypothesized that transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) could modulate autonomic balance and reduce resting HR in these patients. A single-arm clinical trial was conducted with patients aged > 18 years, at ambulatorial accompaniment after heart transplantation, who were submitted to a single TEAS (40 minutes at pericardium channel acupoints PC5 and PC6). The arterial blood pressure and RR interval were recorded from 20 minutes before to 20 minutes after TEAS. The RR intervals were used to calculate HR variability (HRV) and the sympathovagal index. Linear mixed models were used for comparing variables before, during, and after TEAS. The significance level was set as P 

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
February, 2021
Vol.14 No.1

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Paper2019-12-01

    Wet Cupping—Traditional Hijamah Technique versus Asian Cupping Technique in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    Sulaiman M. Al-Eidi1, Ashry Gad Mohamed2, Raid A. Abutalib3, Abdullah M. AlBedah1, Mohamed K.M. Khalil4*

    Abstract : To evaluate the feasibility of comparing the effect of the traditional Hijamah and the Asian wet cupping techniques in the management of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional and Asian wet cupping techniques for CLBP was conducted in two secondary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Seventy eligible participants with CLBP were randomized to receive one session of wet cupping using either Asian technique (34 patients) or traditional Hijamah technique (36 patients). Cupping was performed at four sites of the bilateral bladder meridian (BL23, BL24, and BL25). The numeric rating scale, Present Pain Intensity, and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire scores were measured immediately after intervention, at seven days, and 14 days after intervention. In both groups, there was a significant decrease in the numeric rating scale, Present Pain Intensity, and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire scores, immediately after intervention, at seven days, and 14 days after intervention. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups across all the outcome measures up to 14 days after intervention. The study did not show a superiority of one technique compared with the other. Longer follow-up periods and more than one cupping session may be needed to evaluate the difference, if any, between both the techniques. Trial Registration NCT02012205.

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  • Research Article2020-08-01

    Abstract : Background: The primo vascular system (PVS) is a novel network composed of primo nodes (PNs) and primo vessels (PVs). Currently, its anatomy is not fully understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the three-dimensional PNePV structure. Methods: Organ-surface PVS tissue was isolated from healthy and anemic rats. The tissues were analyzed by X-ray microcomputed tomography (CT), hematoxylin and eosin staining, and scanning electron microscopy. Results: From CT images, we identified one or more bundles in a PV. In the PN, the bundles were enlarged and existed in isolation and/or in anastomosis. The transverse CT images revealed four areas of distinct intensities: zero, low, intermediate, and high. The first two were considered to be the sinuses and the subvessels of the PVS and were identified in the hematoxylin and eosinestained PN sections. The enlargement of the PN from anemic rats was associated with an increase in the intermediate-intensity area. The high-intensity area demarcated the bundle and was overlapped with the mesothelial cells. In scanning electron microscopy, the PV bundles branched out, tapering down to a single bundle at some distance from the PN. Each bundle was composed of several subvessels (~5 µm). Clustered round microcells (1-25 µm), scattered flat oval cells (~15 µm), and amorphous extracellular matrix were observed on the surface of the PVS tissue. Conclusions: The results newly showed that the primo bundle is a structural unit of both PVs and PNs. A bundle was demarcated by high CT intensity and mesothelial cells and consisted of multiple subvessels. The PN bundles contained also sinuses.

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  • Protocol2020-10-01
    JAMS

    Acupuncture and Dry Needling in the Reduction of Peripheral Acute Fatigue Induced in the Biceps Braquii: Protocol for a Single-blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Gabriel Barreto Antonino 1, *, Ana Paula de Lima Ferreira 2, Eduardo José Nepomuceno Montenegro 3, Alberto Galvão de Moura Filho 2, Arthur Felipe Freire da Silva 3, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de Araújo 2

    Abstract : The present study aims to propose a protocol to verify the efficacy and acute effects of traditional Chinese acupuncture, dry needling, and the rest in peripheral acute fatigue (PAF) induced by intermittent isometric contractions of the nondominant biceps brachii (BB) of nonphysically active men in a randomized, single-blind clinical trial assessed with surface electromyography, contraction time in seconds, infrared thermal imaging, and visual analog scale applied to the PAF. These instruments will evaluate the median frequency, endurance time, temperature (°C), and perceived fatigue in BB of the volunteers. The measurements will be collected in four moments (Test 0, 01, 02, and 03) divided between the beginning and the end of two sets of exercises (Exercises 01 and 02) of intermittent isometric contractions.

    Abstract
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  • Protocol2020-10-01
    JAMS

    Acupuncture and Dry Needling in the Reduction of Peripheral Acute Fatigue Induced in the Biceps Braquii: Protocol for a Single-blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Gabriel Barreto Antonino 1, *, Ana Paula de Lima Ferreira 2, Eduardo José Nepomuceno Montenegro 3, Alberto Galvão de Moura Filho 2, Arthur Felipe Freire da Silva 3, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de Araújo 2

    Abstract : The present study aims to propose a protocol to verify the efficacy and acute effects of traditional Chinese acupuncture, dry needling, and the rest in peripheral acute fatigue (PAF) induced by intermittent isometric contractions of the nondominant biceps brachii (BB) of nonphysically active men in a randomized, single-blind clinical trial assessed with surface electromyography, contraction time in seconds, infrared thermal imaging, and visual analog scale applied to the PAF. These instruments will evaluate the median frequency, endurance time, temperature (°C), and perceived fatigue in BB of the volunteers. The measurements will be collected in four moments (Test 0, 01, 02, and 03) divided between the beginning and the end of two sets of exercises (Exercises 01 and 02) of intermittent isometric contractions.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01

    Abstract : Respiratory inflammation is a frequent and fatal pathologic state encountered in veterinary medicine. Although diluted bee venom (dBV) has potent anti-inflammatory effects, the clinical use of dBV is limited to several chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study was designed to propose an acupoint dBV treatment as a novel therapeutic strategy for respiratory inflammatory disease. Experimental pleurisy was induced by injection of carrageenan into the left pleural space in mouse. The dBV was injected into a specific lung meridian acupoint (LU5) or into an arbitrary non-acupoint located near the midline of the back in mouse. The inflammatory responses were evaluated by analyzing inflammatory indicators in pleural exudate. The dBV injection into the LU5 acupoint significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced increase of pleural exudate volume, leukocyte accumulation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover, dBV acupoint treatment effectively inhibited the production of IL-1β, but not TNF-α in the pleural exudate. On the other hand, dBV treatment at non-acupoint did not inhibit the inflammatory responses in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The present results demonstrate that dBV stimulation in the LU5 lung meridian acupoint can produce significant anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induced pleurisy suggesting that dBV acupuncture may be a promising alternative medicine therapy for respiratory inflammatory diseases.

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  • Impact Shot2020-10-01

    Herbal Transformation by Fermentation

    Chang-Gue Son 1, *, Sam-Keun Lee 2, In-Kyu Choi 2, Eun-Su Jang 1, Kee-Jung Bang 3

    Abstract : We herein show a dramatic change of herbal properties of the composition as well as function via fermentation of Cynanchi atrati Radix (family Asclepiadaceae). Cynanchi atrati Radix showed a high cytotoxicity against B16-F10 melanoma cell line, but the function of Cynanchi atrati Radix was completely changed into anti-melanin activity at very low concentration after Lactobacillus -fermentation. In addition, the compounds were drastically changed as shown in HPLC-based profile. Furthermore, this transformation has been achieved by only Lactobacillus -fermentation. This study proposes an strategy which we need to consider in the herb-derived material researches including pharmacopuncture.

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