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  • Impact Shot2020-10-01

    Herbal Transformation by Fermentation

    Chang-Gue Son 1, *, Sam-Keun Lee 2, In-Kyu Choi 2, Eun-Su Jang 1, Kee-Jung Bang 3

    Abstract : We herein show a dramatic change of herbal properties of the composition as well as function via fermentation of Cynanchi atrati Radix (family Asclepiadaceae). Cynanchi atrati Radix showed a high cytotoxicity against B16-F10 melanoma cell line, but the function of Cynanchi atrati Radix was completely changed into anti-melanin activity at very low concentration after Lactobacillus -fermentation. In addition, the compounds were drastically changed as shown in HPLC-based profile. Furthermore, this transformation has been achieved by only Lactobacillus -fermentation. This study proposes an strategy which we need to consider in the herb-derived material researches including pharmacopuncture.

    Abstract
  • Research Paper2020-10-01

    The Effects of Auriculotherapy on Shoulder Pain After a Cesarean Section

    Abedini Maryam 1, Aminzadeh Fariba 2, Manshoori Azita 2, Bakhtar Babak 3, Sadeghi Tabandeh 4, *

    Abstract : Background: Postcesarean section shoulder pain caused by constrained upper extremity movement limits the maternal activities of breastfeeding and neonatal care. Objectives: This study aims at investigating the effects of auriculotherapy on shoulder pain after a cesarean section. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 90 candidates for a cesarean section were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly allocated into control and intervention groups by the minimization method. In the intervention group, ear seeds were placed on shoulder and muscle relaxation points from two hours prior to surgery until 24 hours after it. In the control group, ear seeds were placed on placebo points. Shoulder pain was assessed on a numerical pain scale in 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups 1 and 6 hours after surgery. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups 24 hours after surgery and the mean pain score was lower in the intervention group (independent t-test, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of auriculotherapy is recommended for the prevention and alleviation of shoulder pain after a cesarean section.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-02-01

    Abstract : The primo vascular system (PVS) is reported to have a periductium composed of cells with spherical or spindle-shaped nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. However, little is known about these periductium cells. In this study, we examined the morphological features of cells covering the PVS tissue isolated from the surface of abdominal organs of rats. By hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, we observed a layer of dark nuclei on the basement membrane at the borders of the sections of primo node (PN), primo vessel (PV), and their subunits. The nuclei appeared thin and linear (10-14 μm), elliptical (8-10 × 3-4 μm), and round (5-7 μm). The borders of the PVS tissue sections were immunostained with a selective antibody for mesothelial cells (MCs). Areas of immunoreactivity overlapped with the flattened cells are shown by hematoxylin and eosin staining. By scanning electron microscopy, we further identified elliptical (11 × 21 μm) and rectangular squamous MCs (length, 10 μm). There were numerous stomata (∼200 nm) and microparticles (20-200 nm) on the surface of the PVS MCs. In conclusion, this study presents the novel finding that the PVS periductium is composed of squamous MCs. These cells tightly line the luminal surface of the PVS tissue, including PNs, PVs, and small branches of the PVs in the abdominal cavity. These results will help us to understand the physiological roles such as hyaluronan secretion and the fine structure of PVS tissue.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : Background: Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. Depression, anxiety, and stress are associated with knee osteoarthritis. Objectives: The aim of the study was to check the effectiveness of acupressure therapy with pharmacological treatment on pain, depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with knee osteoarthritis and to assess the effect of pain improvement on psychological health. Methods: Eligible 212 patients with knee osteoarthritis were divided into two groups (intervention and control group). The intervention group (n = 106) received acupressure therapy in combination with pharmacological treatment, whereas the control group (n = 106) continued pharmacological treatment only. Pain and psychological symptoms were measured using the visual analog scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. Pearson's correlation was used to check the effect of pain improvement on psychological health. Results: Patients of both groups reported severe pain initially. On analyzing the results after completion of the study, it was found that patients in the intervention group scored better on the pain scale (p < 0.001) and DASS-21 (p ≤ 0.0001). However, it may be noted that reduction in the DASS-21 score was not found to be significant for the control group (p = 0.08). Pearson's correlation coefficients value ranged from 0.231 to 0.412 for DASS-21 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: On analysis, it can be concluded that acupressure can be used as add-on therapy in combination with conventional treatment (pharmacological treatment), which may assist in pain reduction. The reduction in pain directly contributes to improvement in the physiological wellness among patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-06-01

    Effectiveness of Manual and Electrical Acupuncture for Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Josielli Comachio 1, *, Carla C. Oliveira 1, Ilton F.R. Silva 1, Mauricio O. Magalhães 1, 2, Amélia P. Marques 1

    Abstract : Background: Low back pain is a common condition that can be effectively treated by acupuncture. However, several treatment point prescriptions and further electrical needle stimulation (i.e., local acupoints, distal acupoints, and sensitized acupoints) may be used. There is an implicit yet unexplored assumption about the evidence on manual and electrical stimulation techniques. Objective: The present study aims to identify effectiveness of electroacupuncture (EA) and manual acupuncture (MA) on pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific low back. Methods: This study is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Sixty-six patients between 20 and 60 years of age with non-specific chronic low back pain experiencing low back pain lasting for at least the previous three months and ≥3 points on a 10 numerical analogic scale. Patients diagnosed with chronic LBP were assigned to receive either 12 sessions of MA or EA. The primary outcomes measurements were pain intensity on Numeric Rating Scale and disability by Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Results: The participants reported improvements post-treatment to pain intensity and disability respectively; however, no differences between groups were observed. Regarding the secondary outcomes, we observed a between-group difference only for kinesiophobia in favor of the manual acupuncture group (difference = -4.1 points, 95% CI = -7.0 to -1.1). The results were maintained after 3 months of follow-up. Conclusion: The study provides evidence that EA is not superior to MA treatment. Both therapies had similar efficacy in reducing pain and disability for chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-06-01

    Abstract : Background and objectives: Needle insertion pain during spinal anesthesia is an unpleasant experience for patients. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the pain intensity during the insertion of spinal needles in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Materials and methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 60 candidates for elective Trans Ureteral Lithotripsy surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The electrodes of the TENS device were placed in the space between L3-L4 and L5-S1 vertebrae. The intensity of pain during insertion of the spinal needle by Visual Analog Scale and the frequency of attempts were recorded. Results: The mean age of the study samples was 34.26 ± 5.07 and 32.8 ± 5.28 in the control and intervention group, respectively. The pain intensity during insertion of spinal needles was less significant in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.001). The number of attempts to insert the spinal needle between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.51). The duration of spinal anesthesia implementation procedure by physician in the intervention group was significantly shorter than that of the control group (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The use of TENS effectively reduced the pain of spinal needle insertion. Considering these beneficial effects, it is suggested that this procedure be used to relive pain in patients with spinal anesthesia.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-10-01

    The Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Spasticity in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Dian E. Putri 1, *, Adiningsih Srilestari 1, Kemas Abdurrohim 1, Irawan Mangunatmadja 2, Luh K. Wahyuni 3

    Abstract : Background: Spasticity in cerebral palsy is one of the most common disabilities of children in developing countries. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of laser acupuncture on spasticity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with spastic cerebral palsy at 2 to 10 years. The patients were categorized into two groups: the control group and treatment group. Laser acupuncture was applied on GV20, GV14, LI4, GB34, and LR3 (power 50 mW, 785 nm, 1 Joule, 40 seconds) three times a week for 12 sessions in the treatment group and placebo laser acupuncture on the same points in the control group. The spasticity was measured using the Modified Ashworth Scale before and after complete sessions. Results: The results showed that there was a significant reduction in the Modified Ashworth Scale score in the treatment group compared with the control group (p = 0.003). Conclusions: This study suggest that laser acupuncture on GV20, GV14, LI4, GB34, and LR3 can reduce spasticity for children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-02-01

    Abstract : This study evaluates the effects of a short-term Cardio Tai Chi program on the cardiorespiratory fitness and hemodynamic parameters in sedentary adults. Thirty-one sedentary participants (age: 58 ± 9 years, body mass: 63 ± 12 kg) were subjected to an exercise program during 10 sessions over a 10-day period within 2 weeks. The Cardio Tai Chi program consisted in a series of three to five intervals lasting 90 s each at ∼70% maximal heart rate separated by 2-min of low-intensity recovery. Primary outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake, V˙O2peak) assessed by the Rockport walking test and resting hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse pressures). We observed a significant difference of means on post-pre V˙O2peak [4.5 ml/kg/min, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.1 to 5.8, p = 0.004], systolic blood pressure (-5.5 mmHg, 95% CI:-7.3 to -3.8, p = 0.010) and pulse pressure (-3.7 mmHg, 95% CI: -5.2 to -2.3, p = 0.028). No significant differences were observed for diastolic pressure (−1.8 mmHg, 95% CI: -2.6 to -1.0, p = 0.226), mean blood pressure (2.5 mmHg, 95% CI: 1.4 to 3.6, p = 0.302), or resting heart rate (-0.9 beat/min, 95% CI: -2.0 to 0.1, p = 0.631). Our findings suggest that engaging in a short-term Cardio Tai Chi program can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and hemodynamic parameters in sedentary adults.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-08-01

    Wet Cupping Therapy Improves the Parameters of Ventricular Repolarization

    Mustafa Çelik 1, *, Hasan E. Yücel 2, Serkan Sivri 1, Erdogan Sökmen ? 1, Cahit Uçar 2

    Abstract : Background: Cupping therapy (CT) is an ancient medical treatment since antiquity and is used for the treatment of such various disease states as contagious diseases, chronic or acute inflammatory disease, and autoimmune disorders. Ventricular repolarization is represented by QT and corrected-QT (QTc) intervals from surface electrocardiography. Objectives: As novel repolarization parameters, Tpeak-toTend (Tp-Te) interval, and Tp-Te/QT and Tp-Te/ QTc ratios are suggested to correlate better with ventricular arrhythmia risk in various clinical conditions than sole QT and QTc intervals. In this study, we aimed to determine whether these parameters changed significantly after CT in healthy individuals. Methods: One hundred and twenty participants (57 women and 63 men; mean age: 49.0 ± 13.0 years) participated in this study. ECGs strips were recorded 1 hour before and 1 hour after CT from each participant, and relevant ECG parameters were compared. Results: Tp-Te interval [69.51 ± 11.54 msec vs 63.15 ± 10.89 msec, p = 0.001], Tp-Te/QT ratio [0.191 ± 0.030 vs 0.174 ± 0.031, p = 0.002] and Tp-Te/QTc ratio [0.175 ± 0.030 vs 0.159 ± 0.026, p = 0.001] were found to be significantly decreased 1 hour after the procedure compared with the pre-procedure values. However, no statistically significant change was observed in mean heart rate, QT and QTc intervals, QT/ QRS and cQT/QRS, and frontal QRS/T angle after the procedure compared with the same parameters before the procedure (p > 0.05). Conclusions: In accordance with the results of our study, it is plausible to conclude that CT may exert cardioprotective effect. However, larger scale prospective studies are needed to support our findings.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : With thousands of years evolution, the human body has developed self-healing properties to recover from disorders. Theoretically, many alternative medicines may work to activate / enhance this self-regulation process. In my talk, I will introduce recent studies on the effects and brain mechanisms of acupuncture, mind-body exercise (Tai Chi and Baduanjin), and imagery on both experimental and chronic pain. Findings of these studies suggest that different alternative interventions may share a common network through which to relieve pain.

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
February, 2021
Vol.14 No.1

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Erratum2020-12-01
  • Case Report2020-12-01

    Abstract : A 24-year-old horse was presented with a clinical history of anaemia, large intestine impaction and hind limb weakness. Loss of body weight was also reported. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were low and piroplasmosis test was negative. Nasogastric intubation with laxative agents was performed and 50 ml of a red blood-cell-supplement was given daily during a month. An assessment following Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (TCVM) principles was performed after the last episode of large intestine impaction. A swollen, pale and wet tongue was observed. A superficial, weak pulse combined punctually with a slippery pulse was detected on the right side. The pulse on the left side was very thin. BL18, BL20 and BL23 were the most sensitive acupoints on the right side. BL18 and BL23 were the most sensitive on the left. TCVM diagnosis was Qi/Yang Kidney Deficiency, Spleen Qi Deficiency with Stagnation and Blood Deficiency. It received acupuncture at Bai-Hui, KI3, KI7, KI10, BL23, GB39, ST36, BL17 and acupressure at SP10. The client reported a significant improvement after treatment and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were normal. KI3, ST36, BL39 acupoints were treated 14 days later. The outcome was favourable and one acupuncture session per month was recommended. No previous case reports in equines have been documented with a combination of blood, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems in the same episode. This case is an example of an integrative approach to investigate the origin and the interdependent relation between body systems.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-02-01

    Abstract : Acupuncture is one of the areas among the alternative therapies that arise high curiosity in the biomedical scientific community. It is particularly popular for treatment of chronic diseases and addictions. However, contrasting with its evidence-based effectiveness, the lack of reasonable explanations for its mode of action divides that scientific community. Difficulties also arise to those responsible for providing information for clinicians and professionals who wish to acquire competencies leading to the acupuncture practice and have a background based on biochemistry and physiology. The classic theories of nerve conduction do not fully explain how information is read and transmitted during the acupuncture treatment. Other theories have been proposed, but they are based on concepts such as biophotonic waves and quantum biochemistry that are difficult to read and understand by those who do not have knowledge in physics. It is the main objective of this review to provide a summary of the main theories and explanatory approaches to the signal transduction and conduction in acupuncture and to describe them in terms of their explanatory hypotheses, limitations, and weaknesses. The most of the literature found support theories for neural conduction, including gate control. They explain the effects of acupuncture in pain relief; few studies have been conducted concerning the conduction based on biophotons. The primo vascular system has been referred as a possible anatomic support for conduction of information during an acupuncture treatment, which could be connected to biophoton transmission.

    Abstract
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  • Case Report2020-12-01

    Abstract : A 24-year-old horse was presented with a clinical history of anaemia, large intestine impaction and hind limb weakness. Loss of body weight was also reported. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were low and piroplasmosis test was negative. Nasogastric intubation with laxative agents was performed and 50 ml of a red blood-cell-supplement was given daily during a month. An assessment following Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (TCVM) principles was performed after the last episode of large intestine impaction. A swollen, pale and wet tongue was observed. A superficial, weak pulse combined punctually with a slippery pulse was detected on the right side. The pulse on the left side was very thin. BL18, BL20 and BL23 were the most sensitive acupoints on the right side. BL18 and BL23 were the most sensitive on the left. TCVM diagnosis was Qi/Yang Kidney Deficiency, Spleen Qi Deficiency with Stagnation and Blood Deficiency. It received acupuncture at Bai-Hui, KI3, KI7, KI10, BL23, GB39, ST36, BL17 and acupressure at SP10. The client reported a significant improvement after treatment and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were normal. KI3, ST36, BL39 acupoints were treated 14 days later. The outcome was favourable and one acupuncture session per month was recommended. No previous case reports in equines have been documented with a combination of blood, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems in the same episode. This case is an example of an integrative approach to investigate the origin and the interdependent relation between body systems.

    Abstract
  • Review Article2020-02-01

    Abstract : Acupuncture is one of the areas among the alternative therapies that arise high curiosity in the biomedical scientific community. It is particularly popular for treatment of chronic diseases and addictions. However, contrasting with its evidence-based effectiveness, the lack of reasonable explanations for its mode of action divides that scientific community. Difficulties also arise to those responsible for providing information for clinicians and professionals who wish to acquire competencies leading to the acupuncture practice and have a background based on biochemistry and physiology. The classic theories of nerve conduction do not fully explain how information is read and transmitted during the acupuncture treatment. Other theories have been proposed, but they are based on concepts such as biophotonic waves and quantum biochemistry that are difficult to read and understand by those who do not have knowledge in physics. It is the main objective of this review to provide a summary of the main theories and explanatory approaches to the signal transduction and conduction in acupuncture and to describe them in terms of their explanatory hypotheses, limitations, and weaknesses. The most of the literature found support theories for neural conduction, including gate control. They explain the effects of acupuncture in pain relief; few studies have been conducted concerning the conduction based on biophotons. The primo vascular system has been referred as a possible anatomic support for conduction of information during an acupuncture treatment, which could be connected to biophoton transmission.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-12-01

    Abstract : Background: Anthropometric and anatomical Chinese inch measurement (CUN) systems are useful in understanding the location of acupoints; however, locating acupoints is challenging. Objectives: The study aimed to locate LI4 and LI6, to measure differences and similarities in body dimensions based on sex using anthropometric and CUN systems, and to observe the relationship between f-cun and b-cun. Methods: 25 forearms and hands from 16 embalmed cadavers had body dimensions measured using anthropometric and CUN systems. LI4 and LI6 were located using a combination of both systems. Data were compiled and calculated to observe any variation in means and ranges. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. Results: LI4 was found on the skin at the lateral border of the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was found 3 cun or 74 ± 8 mm from LI5. Differences were observed between male and female cadavers and a large difference between f-cun and b-cun measurements of 1.5 to 3 cun. There were positive correlations between several body dimensions observed. Conclusions: LI4 was located on the dorsum of the hand, radial to the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was located 3 cun from LI5 with an error of 1 to ½ cun variation. The differences in f-cun and bcun in isolating LI6 seem to account for this error. Future studies using cadavers may need to take this error into consideration for variation and measuring differences.

    Abstract
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