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  • Abstract : The prevalence of elderly dementia and work-related back neck pain is high, and so is the associated cost. Is dementia, which can take 20–30 years to develop, linked to musculoskeletal problems earlier in life? Classic Chinese Medicine Governor Vessel (GV) theory has in fact detailed a correlation, but its acceptance appears to be influenced and even limited by some inconsistences in the literature. This study involved a nationwide online questionnaire of 381 practicing acupuncturists to investigate GV's usage and impact on brain function. The survey covers areas of the acupuncturist's experience, perception of GV usage, related symptoms, needling concerns and correlations with brain function. 39 completed questionnaires were returned, of which 38 were GV users, and nearly three quarters of respondents accepted that GV influences brain function. Only two respondents rejected this influence, but here several inconsistencies were found. The associations with GV were predominately found to be with the spine, kidney, and brain. Indications from practitioners suggested numerous forms of clinical usage of GV, predominately on spinal, cognitive and qi-blood movement issues. GV influence on the brain was accepted by most respondents with only a few expressing uncertainty. Further worldwide, larger population, in-depth studies and trials are needed to fully establish and expand upon these findings.

    Abstract
  • Research Paper2019-08-01

    Effects of Acupressure on Fatigue in Patients with Cancer Who Underwent Chemotherapy

    Atefeh Ghanbari Khanghah1, Moloud Sharifi Rizi2*, Bahram Naderi Nabi3, Masoumeh Adib4, Ehsan Kazem Nejad Leili5

    Abstract : Fatigue is the commonest symptom in cancer patients; despite high levels of clinically significant persistent cancer-related fatigue, few treatments are currently available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acupressure on fatigue in patients with cancer who underwent chemotherapy. The study was designed as a randomized and controlled trial. Ninety samples were selected using the convenience sampling method, and random block sampling was used for allocation of groups (30 for each group). The three groups were similar by age and gender. The experimental group underwent acupressure at the Zusanli (ST-36), Hegu (LI-4), and Sanyingjiao (SP-6), whereas sham pressure was used in the placebo group and no intervention was applied in the control group; the level of fatigue of participants in three groups was calculated in three phases, before, during, and after chemotherapy. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 22. The results showed that the mean of visual analog score of fatigue is significantly different in three groups at the end of chemotherapy (p = 0.021). The mean visual analog score of fatigue in the acupressure group was meaningfully lower than that in the control group after chemotherapy (p = 0.028). Results of this investigation showed that acupressure has short-term effectiveness on the cancer-related fatigue of patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-08-01

    Abstract : Background: Uremic pruritus is a common boring complaint in patients suffering from chronic renal failure. Owing to cost and the side-effects of medications, complementary therapies are more attractive for pruritus treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of acupressure on the severity of pruritus and some laboratory parameters in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Materials and methods: The present clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients undergoing hemodialysis who were allocated in intervention, sham control, and negative control groups (30 in each group). Pressure was applied on SP6, SP10, ST36, and LI11 points in the intervention group and on ineffective points for the sham control group. The negative control group received routine care. The severity of pruritus was measured using the numeric rating scale before, two weeks, and five weeks after intervention. The laboratory parameters were measured before and after the intervention. Results: There was a significant reduction in the severity of pruritus over the course of the study in the intervention and sham control groups (p = 0.001). In addition, significant differences were observed at the end of the intervention in terms of serum phosphorus (p = 0.045) and parathyroid hormone (p = 0.004) levels between groups. Conclusion: Acupressure can improve the severity of pruritus dramatically in hemodialysis patients. It can also reduce serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone levels, which affect pruritus, significantly. Therefore, this simple and inexpensive intervention may be recommended for reducing uremic pruritus among patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-06-01

    Effectiveness of Acupuncture in Dental Surgery: A Randomized, Crossover, Controlled Trial

    Maria L.B. Gil 1, *, Luide M.R.F. Marinho 2, Márcio de Moraes 2, Ronaldo S. Wada 1, Francisco C. Groppo 3, Jorge E. Sato 4, Maria L.R. de Sousa 1, **

    Abstract : Objectives: The objective of this crossover clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Energy Regulation with Acupuncture in clinical occurrences in impacted lower third molar surgeries. Methods: The sample consisted of 22 patients with two impacted third molars, in symmetrical position; divided into two groups: Test Group (TG) with Real Energy Regulation Group and Sham Group (SG) with Acupuncture without Energy Regulation function. The extraction was performed 30 days apart. Energy flow (Ryodoraku Method) and energy regulation performed before extraction were measured. Heart Rate (HR) and Blood Pressure (BP) were evaluated before and after energy regulation and after surgery, residual edema was measured by facial measurements (angle of the mandible to tragus (A-T); angle of the mandible to labial commissure (A-LC); angle of the mandible to the wing of the nose (A-WN); angle of the mandible to the corner of the eye (A-CE); angle of the mandible to the chin (A-C); and mouth opening by the interincisal distance, before and after seven days of surgery. To quantify intraoperative bleeding (ml), blood was aspirated along with the saline solution using a portable vacuum pump adaptor. The amount of saline solution used was subtracted from the final amount of aspirated fluid. Results: Mean of bleeding was lower in TG (p = 0.0392). There were significant differences between groups in facial distances: A-LC (p = 0.010), A-WN (p = 0.030) and A-C (p = 0.008). Conclusion: Energy regulation with real acupuncture was effective in reducing postoperative residual edema and intraoperative bleeding.

    Abstract
  • Research Paper2019-12-01

    Abstract : To evaluate the feasibility of comparing the effect of the traditional Hijamah and the Asian wet cupping techniques in the management of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), a randomized clinical trial comparing traditional and Asian wet cupping techniques for CLBP was conducted in two secondary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Seventy eligible participants with CLBP were randomized to receive one session of wet cupping using either Asian technique (34 patients) or traditional Hijamah technique (36 patients). Cupping was performed at four sites of the bilateral bladder meridian (BL23, BL24, and BL25). The numeric rating scale, Present Pain Intensity, and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire scores were measured immediately after intervention, at seven days, and 14 days after intervention. In both groups, there was a significant decrease in the numeric rating scale, Present Pain Intensity, and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire scores, immediately after intervention, at seven days, and 14 days after intervention. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups across all the outcome measures up to 14 days after intervention. The study did not show a superiority of one technique compared with the other. Longer follow-up periods and more than one cupping session may be needed to evaluate the difference, if any, between both the techniques. Trial Registration NCT02012205.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-08-01

    Abstract : Background: The primo vascular system (PVS) is a novel network composed of primo nodes (PNs) and primo vessels (PVs). Currently, its anatomy is not fully understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the three-dimensional PNePV structure. Methods: Organ-surface PVS tissue was isolated from healthy and anemic rats. The tissues were analyzed by X-ray microcomputed tomography (CT), hematoxylin and eosin staining, and scanning electron microscopy. Results: From CT images, we identified one or more bundles in a PV. In the PN, the bundles were enlarged and existed in isolation and/or in anastomosis. The transverse CT images revealed four areas of distinct intensities: zero, low, intermediate, and high. The first two were considered to be the sinuses and the subvessels of the PVS and were identified in the hematoxylin and eosinestained PN sections. The enlargement of the PN from anemic rats was associated with an increase in the intermediate-intensity area. The high-intensity area demarcated the bundle and was overlapped with the mesothelial cells. In scanning electron microscopy, the PV bundles branched out, tapering down to a single bundle at some distance from the PN. Each bundle was composed of several subvessels (~5 µm). Clustered round microcells (1-25 µm), scattered flat oval cells (~15 µm), and amorphous extracellular matrix were observed on the surface of the PVS tissue. Conclusions: The results newly showed that the primo bundle is a structural unit of both PVs and PNs. A bundle was demarcated by high CT intensity and mesothelial cells and consisted of multiple subvessels. The PN bundles contained also sinuses.

    Abstract
  • Protocol2020-10-01
    JAMS

    Acupuncture and Dry Needling in the Reduction of Peripheral Acute Fatigue Induced in the Biceps Braquii: Protocol for a Single-blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Gabriel Barreto Antonino 1, *, Ana Paula de Lima Ferreira 2, Eduardo José Nepomuceno Montenegro 3, Alberto Galvão de Moura Filho 2, Arthur Felipe Freire da Silva 3, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de Araújo 2

    Abstract : The present study aims to propose a protocol to verify the efficacy and acute effects of traditional Chinese acupuncture, dry needling, and the rest in peripheral acute fatigue (PAF) induced by intermittent isometric contractions of the nondominant biceps brachii (BB) of nonphysically active men in a randomized, single-blind clinical trial assessed with surface electromyography, contraction time in seconds, infrared thermal imaging, and visual analog scale applied to the PAF. These instruments will evaluate the median frequency, endurance time, temperature (°C), and perceived fatigue in BB of the volunteers. The measurements will be collected in four moments (Test 0, 01, 02, and 03) divided between the beginning and the end of two sets of exercises (Exercises 01 and 02) of intermittent isometric contractions.

    Abstract
  • International Scientific Acupuncture and Meridian Symposium (ISAMS) 2019 Conference Abstracts2020-04-01
    JAMS

    Abstract : Respiratory inflammation is a frequent and fatal pathologic state encountered in veterinary medicine. Although diluted bee venom (dBV) has potent anti-inflammatory effects, the clinical use of dBV is limited to several chronic inflammatory diseases. The present study was designed to propose an acupoint dBV treatment as a novel therapeutic strategy for respiratory inflammatory disease. Experimental pleurisy was induced by injection of carrageenan into the left pleural space in mouse. The dBV was injected into a specific lung meridian acupoint (LU5) or into an arbitrary non-acupoint located near the midline of the back in mouse. The inflammatory responses were evaluated by analyzing inflammatory indicators in pleural exudate. The dBV injection into the LU5 acupoint significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced increase of pleural exudate volume, leukocyte accumulation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover, dBV acupoint treatment effectively inhibited the production of IL-1β, but not TNF-α in the pleural exudate. On the other hand, dBV treatment at non-acupoint did not inhibit the inflammatory responses in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The present results demonstrate that dBV stimulation in the LU5 lung meridian acupoint can produce significant anti-inflammatory effects on carrageenan-induced pleurisy suggesting that dBV acupuncture may be a promising alternative medicine therapy for respiratory inflammatory diseases.

    Abstract
  • Abstract : This study investigates whether visual deprivation influences participants' accuracy in differentiating between real and sham acupuncture needles. It also evaluates the relative contributions of tactile, visual, and auditory cues that participants use in their decision-making processes. In addition, a simple sensory decision-making model for research using acupuncture sham devices as comparative controls is proposed. Forty healthy individuals underwent two conditions (blindfolded and sighted) in random sequence. Four sham and four real needles were randomly applied to the participants' lower limb acupoints (ST32 to ST39). Participants responded which needle type was applied. Participants then verbally answered a questionnaire on which sensory cues influenced their decision-making. The proportion of correct judgments, P(C), was calculated to indicate the participants' accuracy in distinguishing between the needle types. Visual deprivation did not significantly influence the participants' discrimination accuracy. Tactile cues were the dominant sensory modality used in decision-making, followed by visual and auditory cues. Sharp and blunt sensations were associated with the real and sham needles, respectively, for both conditions. This study confirmed that tactile cues were the main sensory modalities used in participant decision-making during acupuncture administration. Also, short-term blindfolding of participants during procedures will unlikely influence blinding effectiveness. Clinical trial registration number Not applicable. This study does not fall under the definition of a clinical trial under the ICMJE guidelines.

    Abstract

Journal Info

JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
February, 2021
Vol.14 No.1

pISSN 2005-2901
eISSN 2093-8152

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  • Research Article2020-12-01

    Abstract : Background: Anthropometric and anatomical Chinese inch measurement (CUN) systems are useful in understanding the location of acupoints; however, locating acupoints is challenging. Objectives: The study aimed to locate LI4 and LI6, to measure differences and similarities in body dimensions based on sex using anthropometric and CUN systems, and to observe the relationship between f-cun and b-cun. Methods: 25 forearms and hands from 16 embalmed cadavers had body dimensions measured using anthropometric and CUN systems. LI4 and LI6 were located using a combination of both systems. Data were compiled and calculated to observe any variation in means and ranges. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired t-test. Results: LI4 was found on the skin at the lateral border of the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was found 3 cun or 74 ± 8 mm from LI5. Differences were observed between male and female cadavers and a large difference between f-cun and b-cun measurements of 1.5 to 3 cun. There were positive correlations between several body dimensions observed. Conclusions: LI4 was located on the dorsum of the hand, radial to the midpoint of the second metacarpal bone. LI6 was located 3 cun from LI5 with an error of 1 to ½ cun variation. The differences in f-cun and bcun in isolating LI6 seem to account for this error. Future studies using cadavers may need to take this error into consideration for variation and measuring differences.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-12-01

    Abstract : Background: Despite the adverse consequences of poor sleep during pregnancy, relatively few safe interventions exist for improving sleep among pregnant women. Nonpharmacological interventions are increasingly gaining acceptance. However, the effects of acupressure and acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ACUTENS) have not been widely reported. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, otherwise known as ACUTENS, and acupressure on sleep quality among pregnant women. Methods: Purposive sampling of 42 pregnant women with sleep disorders was conducted, and the participants were randomized into 3 groups, i.e., acupressure, ACUTENS, and usual care. interventions, which were carried out twice weekly for six weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index was used to determine the overall sleep quality. Results: The preintervention scores of sleep quality were 12.5 (3.75), 12.5 (4.0), and 13.0 (3.5) in the ACUTENS, acupressure, and usual care groups, respectively. The KruskaleWallis test did not show any significant difference in the preintervention sleep quality scores (H = 0.379, p = 0.827). Participants in the usual care group recorded the least improvement, with a score of 5.0 (2.25), the ACUTENS group recorded a score of 4.5 (3.0), and the greatest improvement was recorded in the acupressure group, with a score of 4.0 (2.2) after 6 weeks of intervention. The KruskaleWallis test did not show any significant difference in the postintervention sleep quality scores among the 3 groups (H = 0.666, p = 0.717). Conclusion: This study showed that ACUTENS and acupressure as an adjunct to usual care are not more effective than usual care alone in improving sleep quality among pregnant women.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-04-01

    Single Cupping Thearpy Session Improves Pain, Sleep, and Disability in Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

    Maria P. Volpato1, Izabela C.A. Breda2, Ravena C. de Carvalho2, Caroline de Castro Moura3, Laís L. Ferreira2, Marcelo L. Silva1, Josie R.T. Silva1*

    Abstract : The objective of this study was to evaluate if a single session of real or placebo cupping therapy in patients with chronic low back pain would be enough to temporarily reduce pain intensity and functional disability, enhancing their mechanical threshold and reducing local skin temperature. The outcome measures were Brief Pain Inventory, pressure pain threshold, Roland–Morris disability questionnaire and low back skin temperature. This is an experimental clinical trial; after examination (AV0), patients were submitted to real or placebo cupping therapy (15 minutes, bilaterally at the points BL23 (Shenshu), BL24 (Qihaishu) and BL25 (Dachangshu) and were revaluated immediately after the session (AV1) and after one week (AV2). The patients showed a significant improvement in all pain severity items and sleep in the Brief Pain Inventory (p 

    Abstract
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  • Research Article2020-04-01

    Abstract : Patients with glaucoma can show blood flow anomalies at the eye vessel level. A causal relationship is reasonably expected, but so far, it has not been demonstrated. Traditional Chinese medicine indicates that acupuncture can promote specific blood perfusion in specific body districts. Ninety-eight patients with open-angle glaucoma were treated with an ultralow light–level laser, according to a specific acupuncture protocol, and their blood flow was measured before and after a six-week treatment cycle. Doppler measurements showed significant modifications in both pulsatility and resistivity indexes. The most relevant outcome of this study is that the applied treatment demonstrated its effectiveness not only in vasodilation but also in perfusion control that seems to restore appropriate functionality. The protocol therefore should be investigated in future controlled studies and perhaps in other blood perfusion–related pathologies.

    Abstract
  • Research Article2020-12-01

    Abstract : Background: Despite the adverse consequences of poor sleep during pregnancy, relatively few safe interventions exist for improving sleep among pregnant women. Nonpharmacological interventions are increasingly gaining acceptance. However, the effects of acupressure and acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ACUTENS) have not been widely reported. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, otherwise known as ACUTENS, and acupressure on sleep quality among pregnant women. Methods: Purposive sampling of 42 pregnant women with sleep disorders was conducted, and the participants were randomized into 3 groups, i.e., acupressure, ACUTENS, and usual care. interventions, which were carried out twice weekly for six weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index was used to determine the overall sleep quality. Results: The preintervention scores of sleep quality were 12.5 (3.75), 12.5 (4.0), and 13.0 (3.5) in the ACUTENS, acupressure, and usual care groups, respectively. The KruskaleWallis test did not show any significant difference in the preintervention sleep quality scores (H = 0.379, p = 0.827). Participants in the usual care group recorded the least improvement, with a score of 5.0 (2.25), the ACUTENS group recorded a score of 4.5 (3.0), and the greatest improvement was recorded in the acupressure group, with a score of 4.0 (2.2) after 6 weeks of intervention. The KruskaleWallis test did not show any significant difference in the postintervention sleep quality scores among the 3 groups (H = 0.666, p = 0.717). Conclusion: This study showed that ACUTENS and acupressure as an adjunct to usual care are not more effective than usual care alone in improving sleep quality among pregnant women.

    Abstract
  • Editorial2020-04-01
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